ch 4 - Chem 100 Chapter 4 Atomic Theory Nuclear Atom...

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Anna Toy-Palmer 1 Chem 100 Chapter 4 Atomic Theory Nuclear Atom Properties of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons Elements Periodic Table Ions Isotopes Atomic Mass
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Anna Toy-Palmer 2 Chem 100 Dalton’s Atomic Theory states that: 1. Each element is composed of tiny indestructible particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish it from other elements 3. Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds 1. In chemical reactions, atoms are not broken or changed into another type.
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Anna Toy-Palmer 3 Chem 100 Nuclear Atom a. What does the atom look like? b. J. J. Thomson discovers the electron (part of the atom) and that it is negatively charged c. He proposes plum pudding model, where electrons float in a sphere of positive charge – atom must be neutral! 3+ sphere
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Anna Toy-Palmer 4 Rutherford’s Experiment Lead Box Radioactive Sample Gold Foil Fluorescent Screen Alpha Particles Striking Screen
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Anna Toy-Palmer 5 Chem 100 Nuclear Atom a. Rutherford’s experiment on gold foil showed deflection of alpha-particles b. Nucleus of protons and neutrons c. Most of the volume of an atom is empty space, where electrons are dispersed d. Negatively charged electrons equal in number the positive protons so atoms are neutral in charge 6 e -
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Anna Toy-Palmer 6 . . . Nuclear Atom Plum Pudding Atom if atom was like a plum pudding, all the α particles should go straight through most α particles go straight through some α particles go through, but are deflected a few of the α particles do not go through
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Anna Toy-Palmer 7 Chem 100 Protons, neutrons and electrons Atomic weight given in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit: 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom (6 protons and 6 neutrons) Approximate diameter of an atom: ~10 -10 m
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Anna Toy-Palmer 8 Chem 100 Protons, neutrons and electrons Proton Mass: 1.67262 X 10 -27 kg 1 amu Charge: +1 Neutron Mass: 1.67493 X 10 -27 kg 1 amu Charge: 0 Electron Mass: 0.00091 X 10 -27 kg ~0 amu Charge: -1
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Anna Toy-Palmer 9 Chem 100 Protons, neutrons and electrons a. Electrical charge is fundamental property b. Positive and negative charges attract c. Like charges repel d. Positive and negative cancel each other so when paired, the charge on an atom is neutral!!
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Anna Toy-Palmer 10 Chem 100 Elements Defined by number of protons -- see top number on box of periodic table Atomic number (Z) Chemical symbol is one or two letter abbreviation of Latin name for element (Please memorize!) Lead Pb Carbon C Gold Au Nitrogen N Oxygen O Hydrogen H
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Anna Toy-Palmer 11
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Anna Toy-Palmer 12 Chem 100 Elements What is the symbol for lithium? What is it’s atomic number?
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course CHE M 100 taught by Professor Palmer during the Spring '09 term at CSU Northridge.

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ch 4 - Chem 100 Chapter 4 Atomic Theory Nuclear Atom...

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