CH 5 - Chem 100 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chapter 5 Compound...

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Anna Toy-Palmer 1 Chem 100 Chapter 5 1. Compound composition and Proust’s Law 2. Chemical Formulas 3. Molecular view of elements and compounds 4. Formulas for ionic compounds 5. Nomenclature 1. Ionic compounds 2. Molecular compounds 3. Acids
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Anna Toy-Palmer 2 Chem 100 Proust determined that all compounds contained elements in certain definite proportions A compound will have the same proportion and combination of elements regardless of the conditions leading to the synthesis of that compound Example: Copper Carbonate (5.3 parts copper, 4 parts oxygen, 1 part carbon).
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Anna Toy-Palmer 3 Chem 100 The Law of Definite Proportions All samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements. Example: decomposing water: 16.0 g of oxygen for every 2.0 g of hydrogen mass ratio (O/H) = 16.0 g O / 2.0 g H = 8.0 True for any sample of pure water. What is the nitrogen-to-hydrogen mass ratio of ammonia which contains 14.0 g of N for every 3.0 g of hydrogen?
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Anna Toy-Palmer 4 Chem 100 What is the nitrogen-to-hydrogen mass ratio of ammonia which contains 14.0 g of N for every 3.0 g of hydrogen? Mass ratio (N/H) = 14.0 g N/3.0 g H = 4.7
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Anna Toy-Palmer 5 Chem 100 Matter Pure substances Mixtures Elements Compounds Homogeneous Heterogeneous Chemical Classification Flowchart Atomic Molecular Ionic  (Type I  and Type II) Molecular Acids
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6 Molecular View of Elements and Compounds
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Anna Toy-Palmer 7 Chem 100 Chemical Formulas Metal and metal-like elements are listed first [ In the same row, left to right on periodic table] [ In the same column, bottom to top] Exceptions are historical: OH _ Number of atoms of an element is given as a subscript Examples: Al 2 O 3 , SO 3 , CCl 4 , HCl, H 2 O
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Anna Toy-Palmer 8 Chem 100 Chemical Formulas Examples: Al 2 O 3 , SO 3 , CCl 4 , HCl, H 2 O 2 atoms of aluminum to 3 atoms of oxygen If the subscript numbers change, the compound will be different. H 2 O vs H 2 O 2 (water vs. hydrogen peroxide)
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Anna Toy-Palmer 9 Chem 100 Chemical Formulas What would be the chemical formula for a compound containing: Two silver atoms to every sulfur atom Two hydrogens and four oxygens to every sulfur atom One sodium, one hydrogen and three oxygens to every carbon atom
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Anna Toy-Palmer 10 Chem 100 Chemical Formulas Groups of atoms that act as a unit Set those atoms off in parentheses Subscript outside the parentheses indicates number of these units Example: Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4
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Anna Toy-Palmer 11 Chem 100 Chemical Formulas How many total atoms are in Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ? Multiply outside subscript with the inside subscript 1 Mg 1 X 2 N = 2 N 3 X 2 O = 6 O
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Anna Toy-Palmer 12 Chem 100 Atomic and Molecular view of elements Atomic elements: Neon, Argon, Krypton, Copper, Mercury, Helium Molecular elements: O 2 , N 2 , Cl 2 , I 2 , Br 2 , F 2 , H 2
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Anna Toy-Palmer 13 Chem 100 Molecular compounds are composed of two or more
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course CHE M 100 taught by Professor Palmer during the Spring '09 term at CSU Northridge.

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CH 5 - Chem 100 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chapter 5 Compound...

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