CH 9 - Chem 100 Ch 9 Electrons in atoms and the periodic...

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Anna Toy-Palmer 1 Chem 100 Ch 9 – Electrons in atoms and the periodic table 9.1 Models of the atom 9.2, 9.3 Electromagnetic Radiation 9.4 The Bohr Model 9.5 The Quantum-mechanical model 9.6 The quantum-mechanical orbitals 9.7 Electron configurations and the periodic table
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Anna Toy-Palmer 2 Chem 100 Ch 9 – Electrons in atoms and the periodic table 9.1 Models of the atom From the periodic table and Mendeleev’s periodic law, When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, certain sets of properties recur periodically.
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Anna Toy-Palmer 3 Chem 100 Explanations for these observations and laws were needed. Two models propose explanations for the periodic law, the inertness of helium, the reactivity of hydrogen, etc. 1. The Bohr model 2. The Quantum-mechanical model 1. Represents the foundation of modern chemistry
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Anna Toy-Palmer 4 Chem 100 Ch 9.2, 9.3 Light and electromagnetic radiation Interactions with light and atoms helped shaped the two models Light has no mass – it is a form of electromagnetic radiation (type of energy, travels at 3.0 X 10 8 m/sec through space) Characterized by wavelength λ or ν (ν = c /λ29 ROY G BIV -- red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet -- visible light (750 -- 400 nm)
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Anna Toy-Palmer 5 Chem 100 Ch 9.2, 9.3 Light and electromagnetic radiation Light occupies just a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum Spectrum runs from 10 -16 meters (gamma rays) to 10 6 meters (radio waves) Light exists at the 10 -6 meters range The shorter the wavelength, the more energetic the radiation E = h ν or E = hc/ λ
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Anna Toy-Palmer 6 Electromagnetic Spectrum
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Anna Toy-Palmer 7 Chem 100 Gamma rays (10 -11 to 10 -16 m) – produced by the sun, stars and unstable atomic nuclei High energy can damage biological molecules X – rays (10 -8 – 10 -11 m) High energy can damage biological molecules if excessive exposure UV radiation (10 -6 – 10 -8 m) Not as energetic as Gamma or X-rays. Can damage biological molecules on excessive exposure. (Skin cancer, cataracts, premature wrinkling of the skin)
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Anna Toy-Palmer 8 Chem 100 Light (10 -6 m) – NO damage to biological molecules. Causes molecules in our eyes to rearrange resulting in vision. Infrared light (10 -3 – 10 -6 m) We feel as heat Microwaves (10 -1 – 10 -3 m) Efficiently absorbed by water, which allows food which contains water to heat in microwave ovens, while plates with little to no water remains cool
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Anna Toy-Palmer 9 Chem 100 Radio waves (10 6 – 10 -1 m) AM/FM radio, cellular telephones, TV, other forms of communication, radio telescopes Arrange the following colors (green, red, and blue) in order of increasing Wavelength (ROY G BIV) Frequency ( λ = c/ ν ) Energy per photon (E = h ν )
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Anna Toy-Palmer 10 Chem 100 Radio waves (10 6 – 10 -1 m) AM/FM radio, cellular telephones, TV, other forms of communication, radio telescopes Arrange the following colors (green, red, and blue) in order of increasing Wavelength blue, green, red (ROY G BIV) Frequency red, green, blue ( λ = c/ ν ) Energy per photon red, green, blue (E = h ν )
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Anna Toy-Palmer 11 Chem 100
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course CHE M 100 taught by Professor Palmer during the Spring '09 term at CSU Northridge.

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CH 9 - Chem 100 Ch 9 Electrons in atoms and the periodic...

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