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# CH 13 - Chem 100 13.2 Solutions homogeneous mixtures Solute...

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Anna Toy-Palmer 1 Chem 100 13.2 Solutions: homogeneous mixtures Solute: minority component of a solution Solvent: majority component of a solution In seltzer water, CO 2 gas is the solute and water is the solvent Common solvents (polar: water, acetone, methanol nonpolar: hexane, diethyl ether, toluene) Like dissolves like…

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Anna Toy-Palmer 2 Chem 100 13.3 Electrolyte solutions What is a strong electrolyte solution? Which of the following will make strong electrolyte solutions when dissolved in water? Sugar Potassium nitrate Lead (II) chloride Carbon dioxide
Anna Toy-Palmer 3 Chem 100 13.5 Solution concentration: Mass Percent A dilute solution is small amounts of solute in solvent A concentrated solution is large amounts of solute in solvent We can quantitate how concentrated or dilute a solution is using mass percent: g of solute/g of solution X 100% = mass percent of solution

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Anna Toy-Palmer 4 Chem 100 grams of solute/ g of solution X 100% = mass percent If we have 15.3 g of NaCl and add it to 155.0 g of water, what is the mass percent? Grams of solute = 15.3 g of NaCl Grams of solution = 155.0 g of water + 15.3 g of NaCl = 170.3 g of solution Mass percent = 15.3 g / 170.3 g X 100% = 8.98 %
Anna Toy-Palmer 5 Chem 100 Note how we had to combine the mass of water and NaCl to get the mass of solution? Another example of calculating mass percent: If we have a sucrose solution containing 11.3 g of sucrose in 412.1 mL of water (density = 1.00 g/ml), what is the mass percent? Definition is mass solute/mass of solution X 100% We have mass of solute – do we have mass of solution? No… First, we need to get grams of water, then grams of solution --

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Anna Toy-Palmer 6 Chem 100 412.1 ml * 1.00 g/ml = 412.1 g of water Mass of solution = 11.3 g + 412.1 g = 423.4 g Now that we have mass of solute and mass of solution, we can use the equation: 11.3 g / 423.4 g X 100% = 2.67%
Anna Toy-Palmer 7 Chem 100 As we’ve seen with mass percent composition, mass percent of solution can be used to convert grams of solute to grams of solution or vice versa g solute/ 100 g solution –> g solution to g of solute 100g solution / g solute g solute to grams of solution For example: if a soft drink is 11.5% sucrose, what volume in ml contains 85.2 g of sucrose? (density = 1.00 g/ml)

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Anna Toy-Palmer 8 Chem 100 What are we asking for? Volume of solution volume can be converted to grams of solution using density – density is given at 1.00 g/ml grams of solution can be obtained using mass percent and grams of solute – mass percent is 11.5% and grams of solute is 85.2 g of sucrose 100g solution / g solute g solute to grams of solution
Anna Toy-Palmer 9 Chem 100 What are we asking for? Volume of solution Volume = 1.00 ml solution * 100 g solution * 85.2 g sucrose 1.00 g solution 11.5 g sucrose = 741 ml soft drink

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10 Chem 100 What is the mass percent of a solution containing 27.5 g of ethanol and 175 ml of water? 175 ml water = 175 g water
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CH 13 - Chem 100 13.2 Solutions homogeneous mixtures Solute...

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