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Chapter 35- Plant Structure and Growth

Chapter 35- Plant Structure and Growth - Chapter 35 Plant...

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Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth Flowering Plants: 2 main groups o Monocots –based on the # of seed leaves they have; so this type has one seed leaf Seedlings each have 1 cotyledon (seed leaf) which often remains within the confines of the seed Veins are usually parallel Vascular bundles usually complexly arranged Ex: corn Endosperm is usually used for food/nutrients and energy before the leaves sprout o Dicots- 2 seed leaves Ex: bean plant Seedlings each have 2 cotyledons Shoot going up- negativetropism Shoot going down- positive tropism o Figure 30.13 Organ System of Flowering Plants Roots o All plants contain a root system below the ground and a shoot system above the ground o Primary root- first to appear Dicot- tap root system Monocot- flibrous root system o Root hairs are extensions of epidermal cells o Root hairs dramatically increase a root’s surface area for absorbing water and nutrients o Food storage is a function of all roots, but some are highly modified for storage (carrot taproots) Starch is a polysaccharide and storage system for plants
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o Above ground (aerial or prop) roots give extra support (ex: mangrove). o “breathing” roots conduct oxygen to waterlogged roots o Roots of many orchids are photosynthetic (Spanish moss) Shoot system- consists of the stem, leaves, buds, flowers Stems—not roots, modified stems o Some plants have specialized water-storage stems (Baobab trees and Saguaro cacti) o Asexual reproduction. Stolons (“runners” are horizontal, wandering above ground stems o Rhizomes are horizontal below ground stems (ginger plant) o Tubers are the swollen ends of rhizomes, specialized for food storage (potatoes and yams. Starch is being stored) o Bulbs are vertical, underground stems consisting mostly of the swollen bases of leaves specialized to store food (ex: onions) o Tendrils are specialized branches that twist around structures to end support.
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