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Midterm and Final Study Guide

Midterm and Final Study Guide - Lab Safety Irritant...

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Lab Safety Irritant Oxidizing agent (combines w/ oxygen) Carcinogen (cancer causing) Hygroscopic (absorbs H2O) Corrosive Toxic Lachrymator (causes tears) Flammable 1. PPE: personal protective equipment 2. 3 things to wear at all times: apron, closed-toe shoes, goggles Lab 1 Physical and Chemical Properties 1. Physical properties : attributes and characteristics that describe what the chemical species is Ex: color, melting point, density 2. Chemical properties : attributes and characteristics that depend on how a chemical species reacts Ex: solubility, miscibility, chemical reactivity 3. Miscibility : ability of two liquids to completely mix with each other (liquid dissolving in another liquid) Ex: alcohol and water mix completely, they are miscible with each other 4. Immiscible : characteristic of liquids which do not mix with each other (liquids will form 2 layers when combined) Ex: oil and water form layers when mixed so they are immiscible with each other 5. Solubility : ability of a gas or solid to dissolve in a liquid Ex: sugar is soluble in water, but sand is insoluble in water Ex: Carbon dioxide (g) dissolves in water (slightly soluble) to form carbonated beverages 6. Solvent : solution that does the dissolving (present in greater amount) 7. Solute : substance that is dissolved (present in lesser amount) 8. Meniscus : curvature of a liquid in a column due to intermolecular forces between the liquid and the walls of the container 9. The layer with the lesser density will float or rise to the top of the denser liquid. In an oil & water mixture, the less dense oil will float on top of the more dense water. Lab 2 – Synthesis of Potassium Alum 1. Alums : a class of double salts with the formula of MAl(SO4)2 x 12H2O where M = alkali metal cation Ex: Potassium alum – Kal(SO4)2 x 12H2O is found in grocery stores; alum is used for pickling and in industry it is used in waste water treatment and in the production of paper 2. Theoretical yield : in theory, the amount of product that could be produced if the reaction were 100% efficient 3. Actual yield : actual amount of product recovered in the experiment 4. Percent yield : ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield multiplied by 100% 5. Aluminum foil is limiting reagent in calculations Lab 3 – Copper Cycle 1. Types of Reaction Combination – A+B AB Decomposition – AD A + D Single Displacement – AC + B AB + C Double Displacement – AC +BD AD + BC Oxidation-Reduction – A + B A +n + B -m 2. In Oxidation-Reduction aka metathesis reaction : one species will lose electrons in first oxidation half reaction. These electrons are used in the reduction half reaction where the second species gains the electrons
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Lab 4 – Citric Acid in Fruit Juices 1. Titration : technique to determine how much analyte is present in a sample by reacting analyte with a known amount of titrant 2. Analyte : species being analyzed 3. Titrant : species added in small increments by a buret 4. Indicator : used to determine the end of reaction by changing colors 5. Endpoint
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