Chapter 12 Textbook Notes

Chapter 12 Textbook Notes - Chapter 12 Textbook Notes Ch...

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Chapter 12 Textbook Notes Chronic disease - a medical condition that persists for a long period of time Your chances of developing chronic disease increases as you get older 3 behaviors: smoking, eating poorly, and not exercising are the underlying cause of over 35% of all chronic disease deaths I. Why worry about chronic diseases? A. Most Americans will develop one or more chronic disease At least 80% of older Americans have at least one chronic condition Many forms of cancer can be considered a chronic disease and about 1 in 2 men develop it and 1 in 3 women will develop it Osteoporosis - bone thinning disease Arthritis - most common disabling disease in America B. Many chronic diseases are interrelated Having one chronic disease can increase your susceptibility to developing other chronic diseases Ex: having arthritis or osteoporosis makes exercise more difficult, which in turn result in weight gain or cardiovascular disease Most diabetics usually die of cardiovascular disease C. You can control many risk factors for chronic disease Reduce your risk of developing chronic disease: o Getting daily physical activity—sedentary lifestyles lead to chronic diseases o Eating more fruits and vegetables, nuts, whole grains, beans, and heart healthy fats
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o Limiting dietary salt and sugar o Maintaining recommended BMI o Managing stress o Avoiding tobacco and drug and alcohol abuse o Getting enough restorative sleep---sleep aids in immune function and increased ability to ward off infection II. Diabetes Diabetes mellitus - inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin, excessive urine production, excessive amounts of sugar in the blood and urine, and thirst, hunger, and weight loss o Fastest growing chronic disease Pre-diabetes - a condition that raises a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes, marked by blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not yet diabetic A. Diabetes is the inability to properly produce or utilize insulin Pancreas secretes insulin —a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for life Type 1 diabetes - an autoimmune disease that destroys the pancreas’ s ability to make insulin o Strong genetic basis o Usually develops during childhood or adolescence o 5-10% of all cases o Must depend on insulin injections and pay careful attention to diet, exercise, and stress levels
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Type 2 Diabetes - the body may continue to produce insulin, but the body’s cells are unable to utilize insulin properly o Results in elevated glucose levels in the blood and urine—a condition called hyperglycemia o Represents 90-95% of all cases o Weaker genetic basis o Linked to obesity and inactivity Gestational diabetes - can develop in woman during pregnancies; o Usually disappears after childbirth but can leave women at a greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes o Gaining weight between pregnancies can also increase the risk of type 2
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Chapter 12 Textbook Notes - Chapter 12 Textbook Notes Ch...

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