Chapter 13 Textbook Notes

Chapter 13 Textbook - Chapter 13 Textbook Notes Cancer Cancer is the SECOND most common cause of death in the US I What is Cancer Cancer a large

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 13 Textbook Notes- Cancer Cancer is the SECOND most common cause of death in the US I. What is Cancer? Cancer - a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells A. Cancer is the unchecked growth of Abnormal Cells Living cells are genetically “programmed” to grow, divide, and carry out many functions Sometimes a gene is damaged and mutates, resulting in abnormal cells that can form a tumor Tumor- a mass of cells serving no physiological function and multiply without normal control over cellular growth and division---grows more rapidly than surrounding tissue Benign- noncancerous; harmless Malignant- refers to a cancerous tumor; very dangerous or harmful o Grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissue, disrupting normal function Biopsy- a surgical retrieval of cells followed by a microscopic examination to determine if cancer is present o Can usually determine if a tumor is benign or malignant Carcinogen - a cancer-causing agent o an external factor that damages a normal cell and re-programs genetic information--- causing mutations to occur Oncogenes - suspected cancer-causing genes present on chromosomes o Women who inherit a mutation of oncogenes called BRCA1 or BRCA2 are more likely to develop breast cancer B. Cancer Spreads by Metastasizing
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chapter 13 Textbook Notes- Cancer A benign tumor is usually enclosed in a fibrous shell that keeps it localized and prevents its cells from spreading to other areas of the body Malignant tumors are not enclosed, thus spreading to other parts of the body Metastasize - process by which cells of a malignant tumor spread into neighboring tissues or migrate to other parts of the body o This disrupts normal genetic material and can lead to more mutations o As mutated cells divide and metastasize, the cancer spreads To grow, a tumor must have blood supply Angiogenesis - malignant cells give off growth factors that induce new blood capillaries to grow toward the tumor---these supply the tumor cells with oxygen and nutrients, allowing the tumor to grow much faster and larger C. Classes and Stages 4 classes of cancerous cells: 1. Carcinomas Solid tumors that occur in the epithelial tissue (tissues covering body surfaces and lining of most body cavities) Most common class Include: breast, lung, intestines, skin, and mouth 2. Sarcomas Solid tumors that occur in the middle layer of tissue (ex: bones, muscles, and other connective tissues) Generally grow faster and become more dangerous 3. Lymphomas Malignant cells that develop in the lymph nodes, lymph vessels, or infection-fighting organs of the body Generally fall into 2 categories: non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Background image of page 2
Chapter 13 Textbook Notes- Cancer 4. Leukemias Nonsolid cancers characterized by an increase in the number of white blood cells in blood-forming parts of the body Most commonly found in bone marrow and spleen
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course KIN 2504 taught by Professor Stone during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

Page1 / 13

Chapter 13 Textbook - Chapter 13 Textbook Notes Cancer Cancer is the SECOND most common cause of death in the US I What is Cancer Cancer a large

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online