Lect4 Carbohydrate - 1

Lect4 Carbohydrate - 1 - 9/7/10 •  •  • ...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/7/10 •  •  •  •  What are carbohydrates? Diges7on Physiological effects Metabolism of glucose •  Simple sugars –  White sugar: sucrose –  Brown sugar: white sugar with molasses –  Molasses: first extrac7on from sugar cane or beets –  Honey: sucrose and fructose –  Fruit sweeteners: sucrose –  High fructose corn syrup: glucose & fructose –  Corn syrup, corn sweeteners –  Invert sugar, dextrose, turbinado, etc Produc7on: 1.  Steeping corn to soOen hard kernel. 2.  Separa7on into: starch, corn hull, protein, oil 3.  Breakdown of starch into glucose. 4.  Use of enzymes to convert glucose to fructose. 5.  Blending of glucose and fructose to make HFCS ­42 and HFCS ­55. HFCS ­55 (55% fructose) in soO drinks. HFCS ­42 (42% fructose) in canned fruits, condiments, baked goods, flavored milks, yogurt, ice cream, frozen desserts 1 9/7/10 2 9/7/10 1. S7mulates GI mo7lity Increase bulk Draw water into intes7ne 2. Slows nutrient absorp7on: e.g. glucose Soluble fiber binds bile 3. Promote healthy microflora •  Bacteria can digest soluble fiber: excrete short chain fa]y acids for health of colonic cells •  Many beneficial species inhibit undesirable species 4.  Increases intes7nal gas: e.g. beans 5.  A high ­fiber diet increases volume of food needed to meet energy needs 1. Not enough Lactase to digest lactose 2. Lactase high in intes7ne at birth, but declines in many popula7ons. 3. Symptoms: bloa7ng, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea Undigested lactose is food for intes7nal bacteria GAS 4. NOT allergy to milk The good news: •  Most people with lactose intolerance can consume small amounts of dairy products •  Yogurt & cheese more easily tolerated •  Reduced lactose products & lactase enzymes available Calcium ­for7fied products available 3 9/7/10 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Glucose Lactose Glycogen Lactose intolerance •  High fructose corn syrup •  Lactase •  Soluble fiber •  Insoluble fiber •  GI mo7lity 4 ...
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