Immune System - Topic 5.3 5.4 Disease Defense Against...

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Topic 5.3 – 5.4 – Disease & Defense Against Disease Pathogen – a disease causing organisms - May be: - viral (HIV, chicken pox) - bacterial (TB, strep) - fungal (athletes foot) - Protozoan (malaria = plasmodium) - Flatworm - Roundworm How to get infected? - airborne; waterborne; food; insect transmission; STI; skin Barriers to infection – skin, mucous membranes Specific defenses – production of antibodies to a specific antigen Antigen – a molecule (protein) recognized as foreign by the immune system Antibody – a globular, y-shaped protein that recognizes an antigen. - produced by B-cells (a type of leukocyte) Antibiotics – used to treat bacterial infections. - Inhibit the function of bacterial (prokaryotic) proteins, preventing protein synthesis. Will not affect a virus, because a virus uses host cells to reproduce. - Bacteria have short reproductive time, so can easy evolve to a resistance to an antibiotic. Super bugs
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Production of Antibodies 1. Pathogen invades body 2. Antigen detected by macrophage 3. Macrophage engulfs pathogen, and displays the antigen on the outside of its membrane 4.
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