Water Notes - WATER THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT o water is a very...

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WATER – THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT o water is a very important biological molecule – it is found in large percentages in all living forms o it is a polar covalent molecule, where the two hydrogens bond with the central oxygen, creating an angle of 104.5 o this shape gives water its polar nature o the polar nature of water causes intermolecular bonds o water is considered a universal solvent – more substances dissolve in water than in any other substance o reason for this is because of its unique polarity – it has partial positive and partial negative charges to provide attachment with other molecules (see Figure 15, p. 18) o all ionic substances dissolve in water and any polar covalent substance dissolves in water and this is because “like dissolves like”, meaning polar substances are miscible in other polar substances, and non- polar substances are miscible in other non-polar substances o for example, water and oil don’t mix, because water is polar and oil is non-polar o thus, water and oil are immiscible o water and vinegar mix because both are polar substances o small non-polar molecules like O 2 and CO 2 cannot form hydrogen bonds with water, and thus are only slightly soluble o
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