27323898-Campbell-and-Reece-Chapter-1

27323898-Campbell-an - Campbell and Reece Chapter 1 1 INTRODUCTION THEMES IN BIOLOGY What is Biology The study of life A multidisciplinary science

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Campbell and Reece Chapter 1 1 INTRODUCTION - THEMES IN BIOLOGY What is Biology? The study of life. A multidisciplinary science that can be unified by some fundamental themes . Theme 1 – New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy Biological organization is based upon a hierarchy of structural levels; each level has emergent properties. Level Examples Atoms Complex biological molecules Subcellular organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems Complex organism The hierarchy extends beyond the individual organism Population localized group of organisms belonging to the same species Community populations of species living in the same area Ecosystem an energy processing system of community interactions that includes abiotic environmental factors (e.g., soil, water) Biomes large scale communities classified by predominant vegetation and distinctive combinations of plants and animal Biosphere sum of the earth's ecosystems
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Campbell and Reece Chapter 1 2 New properties emerge as you step up the biological hierarchy. These properties were absent from the lower levels and are a reflection of the interactions between the components contributing to the make up of each organizational level (“The whole is much greater than the sum of its parts.”). These properties are called emergent propertie s (Fig 1.3). Scientists studying life often use a combination of two approaches to tackle the complexity of life. Holism = the principle that a higher level of order cannot be explained by examining the component parts in isolation. Systems biology attempts to address the complexity of living things by modeling the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems. Reductionism = The principle that a complex system can be understood by studying the component parts. Theme 2 - Organisms interact with their environment, exchanging energy and matter Organisms are open systems that continually interact with their environments. Both organisms and environment are affected by the interactions between them. Ecosystem dynamics include two major processes nutrient cycling and energy flow. (Figure 1.5) All living things must perform work, which requires energy. Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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27323898-Campbell-an - Campbell and Reece Chapter 1 1 INTRODUCTION THEMES IN BIOLOGY What is Biology The study of life A multidisciplinary science

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