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314956-Biology-Chapter-One-Notes - UNIT ONE FOUNDATIONS OF...

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UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology , Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) 1 Chapter One (The Science of Life) Chapter One (The Science of Life) Chapter One (The Science of Life) SECTION ONE: SECTION ONE: SECTION ONE: THE WORLD OF BIOLOGY THE WORLD OF BIOLOGY THE WORLD OF BIOLOGY Biology Biology, or the study of life, offers an organized and scientific framework for posing and answering questions about the natural world. Biologists study questions about how living things work, how they interact with the environment, and how they change over time. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE Organizations and Cells Organization Organization is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world. All living organisms have one degree of organization. A cell cell cell is the smallest unit that can perform all of life’s processes. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are made up of multiple cells are called multicellular multicellular multicellular organisms. In the highest level, the organism is made up of organ systems , or groups of specialized parts that carry out a certain function in the organism. Organ systems are made up of organs organs organs, which are structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system. All organs are made up of tissues. Tissues Tissues Tissues are groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function. Tissues are made up of cells cells cells. A cell must be covered by a membrane, contain all genetic information necessary for replication, and be able to carry out all cell functions. Within each cell are organelles organelles organelles, which are tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive. Organelles contain biological molecules biological molecules biological molecules; the chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions. All biological molecules are made up of atoms . Atoms are the simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of a certain element. Organism Organ System Organs Tissues Organelles Biological Molecules Atoms Organs Organization in in Organisms Organisms
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UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology , Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) 2 Response to Stimuli Another characteristic of life is that an organism can respond to a stimulus a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment. Organisms must be able to respond and react to changes in their environment to stay alive. Homeostasis Homeostasis Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. Organisms have regulatory systems that maintain internal conditions, such as temperature, water content, and uptake of nutrients by the cell. Multicellular organisms usually have more than one way of maintaining important aspects of their internal environment, such as body temperature.
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