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Unformatted text preview: 1 UNIT ONE: THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Chapter Five: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Chapter Five: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Chapter Five: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Chapter Five: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules (Text from Biology , 6 th Edition, by Campbell and Reece) POLYMER PRINCIPLES Most Macromolecules are Polymers The four main classes of macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The large molecules in carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are polymers polymers polymers polymers, long molecules consisting of similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. These blocks are small molecules called monomers monomers monomers monomers. Monomers are connected by a condensation reaction condensation reaction condensation reaction condensation reaction, also known as a dehydration dehydration dehydration dehydration reaction reaction reaction reaction, where a water molecule is lost to allow the two monomers to bond together. One monomer loses a hydroxyl group (-OH), while the other loses a hydrogen (-H). Enzymes help to speed up these dehydration reactions. Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Hydrolysis is the process that reverses the dehydration reaction and breaks polymers back into monomers. By adding a water molecule to the bond, a hydrogen atom will attach to one monomer and the hydroxyl will attach to the other monomer. Digestion works through hydrolysis: enzymes work to speed up hydrolysis and break apart large polymers into monomers that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. An Immense Variety of Polymers Can Be Built From a Small Set of Monomers There is an amazing number of different combinations of polymers that result from the approximately 40 to 50 common monomers. The variation in the linear sequence the units follow result in unique macromolecules from small molecules common to all life. CARBOHYDRATES – FUEL AND BUILDING MATERIAL Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include both sugars and their polymers. Monosaccharides are single sugars (also known as simple sugars) and disaccharides are double sugars. Polysaccharides are carbohydrates. Sugars, the Smallest Carbohydrates, Serve as Fuel and Carbon Sources Monosaccharides Monosaccharides Monosaccharides Monosaccharides generally have molecular formulas that are a multiple of CH 2 O. Glucose is the most common monosaccharide. A sugar has a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups. Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, the sugar is either an aldose or a ketose. Another criterion for grouping sugars is the size of the carbon skeleton, which can be from three to seven carbons long....
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