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# 4-1 - Handbook 6.1 Introduction to Markov Chains Consider...

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Handbook 6.1: Introduction to Markov Chains Consider an experiment consisting of several stages, and where at each stage, there are a fixed number of different outcomes. If the probabilities for the outcomes for the next stage depend only on the current outcome, then the experiment is called a Markov chain . With a Markov chain, we call the outcomes states . Example: Suppose that it has been found that if it is rainy today, that there is an 0.8 probability of there being rain tomorrow. Also, suppose that it has been found that if it does not rain today, then the probability of there being no rain tomorrow is 0.6. This description of the weather is a Markov chain. As described, next day’s weather depends only on the current day’s weather. Also, this Markov chain has two states: “Rain”, and “No Rain”. We will use matrices to help us answer questions involving Markov chains. The probabilities describes in the example above are called transition probabilities , because they are the probabilities of changing from one state to another. We organize these transition probabilities in a transition matrix , which we call T . The rows of T represent the current state. The columns of T represent the next state. The order of the states for the rows is the same as the order of the states for the columns. We then fill in the entries in a very natural way; for example, the entry in the 2 nd row, 1 st column would be the probability of going from State 2 to State 1. Example: Construct the transition matrix T for the two-state Markov chain described earlier. Since there are two states, then T will have two rows (one for each state) and two columns (one for each state). Let’s take the order of the states as “Rainy”, “Not Rainy”. T = parenleftbigg R NR R NR parenrightbigg 1

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Now, we need to fill in the probabilities. The entry in the first row, first column is the probability of going from a rainy day to another rainy day.
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