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4. MEANING - MEANING Aspectsofmeaning Reference Denotation...

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MEANING   Aspects of meaning Reference The relationship of linguistic forms to objects, events, etc.  Denotation The thing to which an expression refers Connotation The signifying in addition, i.e. additional implications Diagnostic A feature intrinsic to some reality which helps us see that reality: fever is a  symptom of illness Prognostic “The election of the new president means nothing good” Examples   Reference . The relationship between the word 'horse' and the animal to which it refers.  Denotation . The denotation of 'horse' is something like "the hoofed quadruped which has  characteristics A, B, C, etc.".  Someone who can use 'horse' correctly understands its  denotation, but may not know everything there is to know about horses.  Connotation .  The denotation of 'stallion' is "male ungelded horse".  'Stallion' may evoke  additional meanings, e.g. "frisky, powerful".  The latter is a connotation.  Diagnostic .  The height of a mercury column in a thermometer is diagnostic of the  temperature (the temperature  modifies the volume of the mercury).  Prognostic .  Heavy dark clouds announce rain.  A prognostic is a diagnostic about the 
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