Anth_Test_2_BOOKNOTES - Book notes Chris liu Ch 5...

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Book notes Chris liu Ch. 5 Psychology and Culture Psychology is an umbrella term for combo of human behaviors and mental processes that vary across cultures: Personality: a person’s unique characteristics and behaviors Cognition: ways of thinking, knowing, problem solving, remembering Perception: the organization and interpretation of sensory info Emotion: a feeling state involving physiological, cognitive, and expressive components. Learning: development of skills, capabilities, behaviors Mental illness: maladaptive or dysfunctional patterns of thinking and behaving Psychological Anthropology: term for research into cultural variations in psychological processes. Asks how does culture affect personality/cognition/emotion etc? -what is the mix of biology and culture in any one of these processes? Anthro’s would say about the study of psych in a culture: subsitenence is the most obvious, ritual is most photogenic, and psychology most elusive Environmental determinism: the natural environment is a crucial shaper of culture. Folk ethnography: or fold psychology-notion that climate or other aspects of one’s environemtn affect one’s personality-failed to hold up under scrutiny. (no scientific support) John Whiting-research on mother-child relationships: some cultures, mother and infant remain in close contact during day and sleep together at night, not separated from mother until a few years old. Other cultures-infant spends most of itme in crib or not touching mother-separated at birth. -Whiting suggests different child rearing syles have major effect on psych development of a male-in terms of dependency and aggressiveness. -cultures with more contact had dramatic puberty rites such as circumcision -cultures w/ less contact lacked male initiation rites, but had beliefs in high gods or guardian spirits who substituted for lack of parents. Margaret Mead-Puberty and Gender Book-coming of age in somoa made Anth famous -Puberty once thought of as a time of turmoil as a result of biological changes. -Somoan puberty fairly smooth, sexuality freely expressed. Sexuality constrained in U.S. at that time. Gender in New Guinea: U.S. men aggressive, women nurterers Arapesh: both men and women gentle nurturers Mundugumor: both men and women aggressive Tchambuli: women aggressive entrepreneurs, men withdrawn artists. *Gender is culturally constructed
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National character: suggests a common cultural pattern for a nation-rejected b/c of generalizing. There is cultural variation w/in each nation. National Culture: accepted term Ruth Benedict-Patterns of Culture-cultures as interrelated wholes. -Benedict gave primacy to psychological or personality features-described 3 cultures from a psychological standpoint by their dominant personality configurations- Apollonian/Dionysian/paranoid -tried to elevate fok ethnography (sterotypes) to a science, didn’t hold after more careful examination of cultures. Applied anth used in WWII to understand Japanese culture.
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Anth_Test_2_BOOKNOTES - Book notes Chris liu Ch 5...

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