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ESSAY STUDY GUIDE 1) INTRO 2) Hard Determinism a) Main Ideas i) Every event has a cause, thus everything happens, including human actions, simple proceeds from previous events. For every event that happens, there are previous events which are sufficient conditioning for the occurrence of that event. ii) There is no such thing as free will. iii) The future can be predicted by tracing history. b) Main People i) Baron D’Holbach (1) Believed man is on a line nature commands him to follow (2) Desire = Inherent cause ( uses to explain the difference between a reflex reaction and a deliberate raising of the arm) (3) Pleasure-Pain principle – the tendency or drive to achieve pleasure and avoid pain as the chief motivating force in behavior. We always tend toward that which gives us pleasure; and have an aversion to which threatens pain. (4) Man = Machine we DON’T choose (a) All the motion of his machine springs as a necessary consequence form his primitive impulse. (5) Defends materialism and atheism ii) Julian Offray de la mettrie (1) In L’homme machine (1748) that man is simply a machine subject to the laws of motion like any mechanism of eighteenth century science. c) Oppositions
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i) Indeterminism (1) If I don’t accept determinism then I must accept indeterminism and the pluralism which goes with it, namely, that there is good and bad in the universe, but it is possible that through our actions we may better it also called Meliorism (a) Libertarianism (b) Free Will-ism ii) Desire to drink (thirst) vs Desire for Self Preservation (1) Will is the outcome of deliberation is the strongest desire. iii) Morality (1) In the moral as well as physical world, everything that happens is a necessary consequence of causes, either visible or concealed, which are of necessity obliged to act after their peculiar essence. In man, free agency is nothing more than necessity contained within himself. d) OTHER i) NOT FATALISM (That is the idea that something will happen no matter what at a certain point. Past events don’t affect the reality ahead) 3) Libertarianism “Free Will” “indeterminism” a) Main Ideas i) Free Will Thesis (Freewillism) an action is only free action if the agent could
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