VITAMINS - VITAMINS Nutritional Requirements Deficiency...

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VITAMINS Nutritional Requirements Deficiency, Adequacy, Toxicity RDA applies to 98% of the population So the recommendations are more than adequate Vitamins Essential – can’t be synthesized Non-caloric Needed in microscopic quantities Organic – contain carbon This is the difference between minerals that have no carbon Vitamins are talked about in terms of solubility Body handles them differently We easily excrete water We can’t excrete fat Fat Soluble o Vitamins A, D, E, K o Storable o Excess is STORED o Deficiencies develop slowly o More likely to develop toxicity Water Soluble o Not storable o Excess is EXCRETED o Deficiencies develop more quickly o Less likely to develop toxicity- takes bigger volumes to reach toxicity FAT SOLUBLE vitamins Vitamin A (Retinol) o Function Vision Mucus Production Immune System Cellular Differentiation- process to make a new cell mature o Deficiency Night blindness- Complete blindness Exophthalmia- dry eye Infection, Illness Kerotinization of Skin cells Like hard goose bumps Cancer From failure of cell differentiation o Sources 2 Ways Retinol Preformed Vitamin A, nothing is done to it Milk, Liver, Fish oil, Animal Sources Beta Carotene Provitamin- not retinol. A precursor that the body converts to retinol
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Cartenoid- the precursor Beta Carotene has an Orange pigment All orange and yellow fruits have rich sources Dark leafy greens (chlorophyll masks the orange pigment) o Darker lettuce like romaine o Kale, collards, turnip greens o Mustard greens, bok choy, broccoli, spinach o Toxicity Retinol is the most common way people reach toxicity Beta Carotene cannot be toxic Three Kinds of Toxicity Acute: Single very large dose o Central Nervous System problems including brain and thought o Takes 100X RDA Chronic: Smaller excess doses over time o You’re absorbing more over time o CNS problems, bone pain, loss of appetite, headache o Takes 10X RDA over time Teratogenicity o Birth Defects o Increased risk if pregnant women with 2-3X RDA Smaller dose, easier to poison Pregnant women should read food labels to watch for high fortification of Vitamin A If you want take a supplement, take Beta Carotene, NOT Retinol Vitamin D o Function Needed for Calcium absorption o Deficiency Rickets o In Children o Bones don’t form well Osteomalacia o In Adults o Bad bones, not enough calcium in bones o Sources Sunlight o Synthesizes Vit D from cholesterol in skin with UV light
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  • Spring '08
  • Anderson
  • Vitamin, niacin, Folate deficiency, Folate Deficiency Anemia, Dark leafy greens, deficiency B-12 deficiency

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VITAMINS - VITAMINS Nutritional Requirements Deficiency...

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