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Unformatted text preview: Boltzmann distribution formula for calculating the relative populations (numbers of molecules in a state) of states of various energies N i /N j = e(EiEj)/kT k = 1.381 x 1023 JK1 R = N A k So for the Boltzmann distribution of molar gases: N i /N j = e(EiEj)/RT The higher the energy, the lower the population (only ground state has molecules at T = 0) The higher the temperature, the more likely it is that higher energy states are populated More levels significantly populated if close together in comparison with kT than if they are far apart Maxwell distribution fraction of molecules that have a particular speed V mean (T/M) 1/2 Average speed increases as the square root of temperature and decreases as the square root of molar mass Equipartition theorem alternative to Boltzmann to calculate the average energy associated with translational and rotational motion In a sample at temperature T, all quadratic contributions to the total energy have the same mean value, namely kT per molecule, or RT per mole...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2011 for the course CHEM 480A taught by Professor Wesolowski during the Fall '07 term at University of Arizona Tucson.
 Fall '07
 Wesolowski
 Physical chemistry, Mole, pH

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