# week2 - Markman Syntax Week 2 Lecture 2 Addendum 1 Refining...

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1 Markman 9/19/07 Syntax Week 2, Lecture 2 - Addendum 1. Refining the structure : from phrase-structure rules to the X’ (pronounced X-bar) The X’ schema Æ S = IP = TP. Æ ‘IP’ stands for Inflection Phrase. It can be used equivalently with ‘TP’ Æ there is no need to have language specific and phrase-specific rules. We can have a more general phrase-structure schema: XP Æ (Spec) X’ X’ Æ X (Comp) or more formally: XP Æ YP X’ X’ Æ X ZP There may be more than one X’ level. The extended X’ phrase structure is: XP Æ YP X’ = [this is called the ‘specifier rule’ b/c YP is the specifier (Spec) of X X’ Æ X’ (ZP) = [this is called the ‘adjunct rule’ for reasons we will see soon] X’ Æ X (WP) = [this is called the ‘complement rule’] Terminology: we say X’ is a daughter of XP; ZP is a sister of X’; X’ is sister of ZP The relevance of the above rules will become clear shortly. For now consider this: S = IP = InflectionPhrase I P N P I I V P N P S’ = CP = Complementizer Phrase where complementizer is “that” , “whether”, “if” or it could be empty.

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2 CP What(i) C’ C IP did N P I Mary I V P t(k) N P V t ( i ) V s e e Æ Even if you don’t see the CP level, it is usually assumed to be there. Æ The X’ schema is fully recursive and binary branching – a desirable result NOTE BENE: A head can subcategorize for an NP object (e.g. for an NP complement), two NP objects (two complements), an PP object, and NP and a PP object or no object at all Æ OK, but why do we really need the X-bar level? There is evidence that we have constituents that are smaller than an XP but bigger than a head X. 2 Evidence for the intermediate ‘bar’ levels.
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week2 - Markman Syntax Week 2 Lecture 2 Addendum 1 Refining...

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