Hmwk_Answers_Exs_1_32_Pgs_253_260 - C H A P T E R 5 F a...

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CHAPTER 5: Fallacies of Relevance Text pp. 253—260 1. Personal Attack: Bradbury is guilty here of the abusive form of this fallacy. He maligns the character of his opponents by calling them "knuckleheads," "stupid,"and 22 23
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calling them "knuckleheads," "stupid," and "pretenders" and then showers  them with contempt for not being nuclear scientists. They only "pretend" to  care about the human race, since these sane people leave the rallies where  they have been protesting nuclear power and recklessly drive home, killing  thousands on the freeway. Does Bradbury really believe that the people  who protest are always the same as those involved in fatal accidents? 2.   Personal   Attack:   This   is   an   example   of   a   genetic   fallacy.   Al-though  superstition may have been the source and origin of the idea of God  d αη   religion, to believe that it is therefore all there is to religion would be the  same as believing that since all Americans are descended from immigrants,  we are there-fore all really foreigners. 4. Appeal to Pity:  This remark is designed to gain pity for those soldiers, now  old, who have not won the glory and honor of their comrades  h  died in ω ο   battle but who, neve rt heless, are often unjustly forgotten when the battles in  which they fought are only  memories. 8. Appeal to Authority:  Anyone who conducts  an argument like  this, which  appeals to authority, is not using his or her intelligence, only memory. A  thing is true not because someone says so but because of the evidence that  suppo rt s it. What is called for here is not the add tion of f ί u rt her sources but  data  (gleaned, perhaps, from psychology texts) suppo rt ing the conclusion  being advanced. 9. Appeal to Fear:  Rather than produce reasoned (and reason-able) arguments  for purchasing the book in question, the adve rt isement exploits people's fear  in order to get them to buy. 11. Mob Appeal:  The phrase  loyal Americans  is a highly manipulative  one  whose  purpose  is  to  make  anyone  who  does  not  sit  down  immediately and write letters of protest to Congress feel that he or  she does not really love the country and is not a   true   American.  Where are the arguments t b  prove that the bill is deplorable? 12. Personal Attack:  This is another example of the genetic form of the  ad hominem  fallacy. Instead of showing evidence of why it is useless  to listen to this person, the individual is condemned as belonging to,  and therefore espousing the views of, the Radical Right. But even  persons of the Radical Right may have some good reasons in suppo rt 
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course MODR 1760 taught by Professor Camelacircelli during the Spring '11 term at York University.

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Hmwk_Answers_Exs_1_32_Pgs_253_260 - C H A P T E R 5 F a...

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