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Ch 3-Chemistry Of Life

Ch 3-Chemistry Of Life - Ch3 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Organic...

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Ch3 - THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Organic compounds Hydrocarbons Functional groups Macromolecules Condensation-dehydration-synthesis Hydrolysis-hydration-degradation Types Carbohydrates -saccharides: mono-, di-, poly- Lipids - glycerides, phopholipids Proteins - polypeptides Nucleic acids - polynucleotides All organisms have similar organic compounds made of covalently linked C "backbones". Carbon Atomic # 6 (protons) 6Electrons - 2 in K shell, 4 in L shell (valence electrons) It can complete the shell by sharing 4 electrons in covalent bonds (shared pairs of electrons). See single, double, triple bonds also branched, un-branched, rings. C backbone with only H attached to it is hydrocarbon, neutral, nonpolar, hydrophobic (water fearing) these molecules do not interact readily with other compounds unless functional groups are added Functional groups added to hydrocarbons determine their properties and make molecules more hydrophilic hydroxyl O-H phosphate PO 4 carbonyl C=O sulfhydryl SH carboxyl COOH methyl CH 3 amino NH 2 Large organic molecules are called macromolecules or polymers, made from smaller units called monomers linked chemically by the loss of water called condensation or dehydration synthesis. monomers condensation/dehydration synthesis polymers HO- -OH + HO- -OH HO- -OH + HOH ( water out) Polymers are broken into monomers by the addition of water called hydrolysis (water-break) or hydration. polymers hydrolysis/hydration monomers HO- -OH + HOH ( water in) HO- - -OH + HO- -OH CARBOHYDRATES (carbon water) Usually contain C H O in a 1:2:1 ratio The basic formula is CH 2 O really H-C-OH , one C has O (carbonyl) , other Cs have an OH (hydroxyl) and H . The carbonyl & hydroxyl are - polar - hydrophilic (water loving). Simple sugars are the monomers. ( gly coside link) monosaccharides - one simple sugar Grouped according to # of Cs they have and names end in - ose. tri - = 3 C pent - = 5 C ribose, deoxyribose hex - = 6 C glucose, fructose, galactose 3 important hexose isomers (different orientation of the same groups) usually form rings in solution glucose - blood sugar glucose chain -C=O glucose ring o fructose - fruit sugar -C-OH galactose HO-C disaccharide
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