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Unformatted text preview: Ch3 - THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Organic compounds Hydrocarbons Functional groups Macromolecules Condensation-dehydration-synthesis Hydrolysis-hydration-degradation Types Carbohydrates -saccharides: mono-, di-, poly- Lipids - glycerides, phopholipids Proteins - polypeptides Nucleic acids - polynucleotides All organisms have similar organic compounds made of covalently linked C "backbones". Carbon Atomic # 6 (protons) ∴ 6Electrons - 2 in K shell, 4 in L shell (valence electrons) ∴ It can complete the shell by sharing 4 electrons in covalent bonds (shared pairs of electrons). See single, double, triple bonds also branched, un-branched, rings. C backbone with only H attached to it is hydrocarbon, neutral, nonpolar, hydrophobic (water fearing) ∴ these molecules do not interact readily with other compounds unless functional groups are added Functional groups added to hydrocarbons determine their properties and make molecules more hydrophilic hydroxyl O-H phosphate PO 4 carbonyl C=O sulfhydryl SH carboxyl COOH methyl CH 3 amino NH 2 Large organic molecules are called macromolecules or polymers, made from smaller units called monomers linked chemically by the loss of water called condensation or dehydration synthesis. monomers → condensation/dehydration synthesis → polymers HO--OH + HO- -OH HO- -OH + HOH ( water out) Polymers are broken into monomers by the addition of water called hydrolysis (water-break) or hydration. polymers → hydrolysis/hydration → monomers HO- -OH + HOH ( water in) HO- - -OH + HO- -OH CARBOHYDRATES (carbon water) Usually contain C H O in a 1:2:1 ratio The basic formula is CH 2 O really H-C-OH , one C has O (carbonyl) , other Cs have an OH (hydroxyl) and H . The carbonyl & hydroxyl are - polar- hydrophilic (water loving). Simple sugars are the monomers. ( gly coside link) monosaccharides- one simple sugar Grouped according to # of Cs they have and names end in - ose. tri- = 3 C pent- = 5 C ribose, deoxyribose hex- = 6 C glucose, fructose, galactose 3 important hexose isomers (different orientation of the same groups) usually form rings in solution glucose- blood sugar glucose chain-C=O glucose ring o fructose- fruit sugar-C-OH...
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