Ch_07 - M emor y Cha pter VI I H i ppocampus r esponsi bl e...

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Unformatted text preview: M emor y Cha pter VI I H i ppocampus r esponsi bl e for for mi ng new memor i es f or M emor y: pr ocesses that al l ow us t o r ecor d, stor e, & l ater r etr i eve exper i ences & i nfor mati on exper to l ear n & adapt M emor y a s I nfor ma ti on Pr ocessi ng Pr Encodi ng: getti ng i nfo i nto system by tr ansl ati ng i t i nto a neur al code that br ai n pr ocesses n eur Stor a ge: r etai ni ng i nfo over ti me (RAM , har d dr i ve) (RAM R etr i eva l : access stor ed i nfo Retr (open fi l e) (open BUT h umans ar e mor e compl ex and humans A T H REE-ST AGE M OD EL 1. Sensor y M emor y: B RI EFL Y h ol ds i ncomi ng sensor y i nfo (fr acti on of second) (fr M ade of subsystems—sensor y sensor r egi ster s V i sual I coni c stor e; E .g. fl ashed Vi l etter s A udi tor y Echoi c stor e Audi Other r egi ster s ver y poor (Smel l of a r ose) A T H REE-ST AGE M OD EL 1. Wor ki ng/Shor t-T er m M emor y: t empor ar i l y hol ds a l i mi ted amount of i nfo; enter s STM thr u sel ecti ve attenti on M emor y Codes: m ental r epr esentati ons of some type of i nfo or sti mul us (vi sual , phonol ogi cal , semanti c, motor codes). For m of code doesn’t al ways cor r espond to or i gi nal d oesn’t Capaci ty & Dur ati on: l i mi ted, Capaci d ependi ng on sti mul us. I f unr el ated ” m agi cal number 7, pl us/ mi nus magi two” t wo” Chunki ng: combi ni ng i ndi vi dual i tems i nto l ar ger uni tes of meani ng A T H REE-ST AGE M OD EL 1. Wor ki ng/Shor t-T er m M emor y: M ater i al “hel d” by Rehea r sa l R ehea W/ o r ehear sal , shel f l i fe up to 20 sec Acousti c codi ng cook car di sh book bar fi sh Putti ng Shor t-Ter m M emor y to Wor k Putti A T H REE-ST AGE M OD EL Wor ki ng memor y: l i mi ted-capaci ty Wor system that tempor ar i l y stor es & pr ocesses i nfo, & suppor ts other cogni ti ve functi ons cogni Components: Components: Phonol ogi ca l Loop: br i efl y stor es mental r epr esentati ons of sounds m ental Vi suospa ti a l Sketchpa d: stor es vii sual & spati al i nfo v Epi sodi c Buffer : t empor ar y stor age space wher e i nfo fr om L TM & phonol ogi cal & / or vi suospati al subsystems can be i ntegr ated, mani pul ated, & made avai l abl e m ani Centr a l Executi ve: d i r ects over al l acti on; pl ans & contr ol s sequence of acti ons, di vi des & al l ocates attenti on t o other subsystems, & i ntegr ates A T H REE-ST AGE M OD EL 1. Long-T er m M emor y: vast l i br ar y of mor e dur abl e stor ed memor i es m emor “ H ar d” stor age Unl i mi ted capaci ty Semanti c codi ng cook car di sh chef auto pl at e A T H REE-ST AGE M OD EL 1. Long-T er m M emor y: A r e STM & L TM r eal l y di sti nct? Ar Ser i a l posi ti on effect: abi l i ty Ser t o r ecal l an i tem i s i nfl uenced by i tem’s posi ti on i n a ser i es Pr i macy effect Pr Recency effect Recency When r ecal l test i s del ayed? When A T H REE-ST AGE M OD EL I nfor ma ti on Sensor y Regi ster Output Shor t-T er m M emor y Rehear sa l Long-T er m M emor y Encodi ng: E ncodi E nter i ng Enter I nfor ma ti on L i ke a l i br ar y, L TM must be or gani zed to be r etr i eved or E FFORT FU L & AU T OM AT I C PROCESSI N G P ROCESSI E ffor tful l ear ni ng: encodi ng Effor t hat’s i ni ti al l y i ntenti onal l y & r equi r es consci ous attenti on (names, ti mes, wor k, l i sts…) (names, Automati c pr ocessi ng: occur s w/ o i ntenti on & r equi r es mi ni mal attenti on (spati al l ocati on, sequence of events, “top of page”…) events, LEVELS OF PROCESSI N G: L EVELS WH EN D EEPER I S BET T ER 1) Str uctur al encodi ng: n oti ce how wor d l ooks; shal l ow (POTATO—capi tal ) Phonol ogi cal —phonemi c—encodi ng: Phonol sound out wor ds; i nter medi ate (H ORSE—r hymes wi th cour se) (H Semanti c encodi ng: pay attenti on to Semanti what wor d means; deepest (TABL E) w hat L evel s of pr ocessi ng: t he mor e Level d eepl y we pr ocess i nfo, the better we wii l l r emember i t (pr ocessed w pr semanti cal l y) semanti 2) 3) EXPOSU RE & REH EARSAL E XPOSU M er e exposur e w/ o focusi ng shal l ow shal pr ocessi ng (coi n) pr M a i ntena nce r ehea r sa l : si mpl e, r ote r epeti ti on ; k eeps i nfo i n wor ki ng keeps memor y, but not opti mal for L TM m emor Rehear sal needs mor e thi nki ng Rehear El a bor a ti ve r ehea r sa l : f ocusi ng on meani ng of i nfo or expandi ng— m eani el abor ati ng—on i t i n some way or gani ze & tr y to under stand, thi nk how i t or appl i es to own l i fe, r el ate to concepts al r eady known mor e effecti ve for L TM EXPOSU RE & REH EARSAL E XPOSU El abor ati ve Rehear sal CONSOL I DATI ON: bi ndi ng CONSOL t ogether of i nfor mati on i n the hii ppocampus h Acti ve Rehear sal Rehear sal M a i ntena nce keeps i tems i n STM Acti ve or gani zi ng I RSYM CAI BM CI A FBI O RGAN I ZAT I ON AN D I M AGERY Wai ter cr eates or gani zati onal scheme Wai (di vi des or der i nto categor i es & uses dii ffer ent system to encode or der s) d H i er ar chi es & Chunki ng: m emor y enhanced by memor associ ati ons b/ w concepts, each categor y ser ves as cue (has vi sual or gani zati on) or Chunks easi er to r ehear se, keep Chunks acti ve i n wor ki ng memor y, & tr ansfer i nto L TM tr H i er ar chy I RSYM CAI BM CI AFBI O RGAN I ZAT I ON AN D I M AGERY Vi sual I mager y: D ua l codi ng theor y: encodi ng i nfo u si ng both ver bal & vi sual code enhances memor y enhances odds i mpr ove that odds at l east 1 code wi l l be avai l abl e l ater to suppor t r ecal l be h ar der wi th abstr act concepts, l i ke har jeal ousy j eal M ethod of l oci : m emor y ai d that associ ates i nfo wi th mental i mages of physi cal l ocati ons (campus ar eas) (campus O RGAN I ZAT I ON AN D I M AGERY Other M nemoni c D evi ces: Other M emor y ai d: r eor gani ze i nfo i nto m or e meani ngful uni ts & pr ovi de extr a cues to hel p r etr i eve i nfo extr H i er ar chi es Chunki ng vi sual i mager y M ethod of l oci Acr onyms Rhyme (ad ji ngl es) H OW PRI OR KN OWLED GE SH APES EN COD I N G SH We don’t pr eci sel y encode ever y We w or d, moment…BUT the gii st of i t g of m ental fr amewor k—or gani zed patter n of thought—about some aspect of the wor l d aspect i nfl uences or gani zi ng Schema : Our M ental Or gani zer s: & encodi ng of seemi ngl y meani ngl ess detai l s as a meani ngful patter n m eani mor e of them r emember H OW PRI OR KN OWLED GE SH APES EN COD I N G SH Schemas, Encodi ng, & Exper ti se: M usi cal scor e: uni nter pr etabl e except to musi ci an acqui r e exper ti se acqui devel opi ng schemas that hel p encode Chess pl ayer s see pi eces ar r anged Chess i n meani ngful posi ti ons OR m eani r andom chunki ng & schemas make u tr eat chunki E N COD I N G AN D EXCEPT I ON AL M EM EORY E XCEPT M nemoni st (memor i st): per son w ho di spl ays extr aor di nar y memor y ski l l s ski Coul d have i nnate abi l i ty OR Coul h i ghl y l ear ned ski l l (pr i or k/ l , m eani ngful associ ati ons, effi ci ent stor age & r etr i eval , & extensi ve pr acti ce) extensi T ake advantage of Take basi c memor y pr i nci pl es (vi sual i mages, stor i es, chunks, el abor ati on, meani ngful Stor a ge: Stor R eta i ni ng Reta I nfor ma ti on A t moment’s noti ce, u can At r ecal l an i ncr edi bl e weal th of i nfo of M EM ORY AS A N ET WORK Associ a ti ve N etwor ks: m assi ve n etwor k of associ ated i deas & concepts; each concept/ uni t of i nfo concepts each r epr esented by node n ode l i nes r epr esent associ ati ons (shor ter l i nes cl oser associ ati ons) Schema: Thi nk about concept Schema: spr ead acti vati on of r el ated concepts thr oughout networ k concepts P r i mi ng: acti vati on Pr of one concept (uni t of i nfo) by another (uni H i nts & mnemoni c devi ces acti vate M EM ORY AS A N ET WORK N eur a l N etwor ks: ( connecti oni st m odel ) each memor y i s r epr esented by a u ni que patter n of i nter connected & sii mul taneousl y acti vated nodes. s Smal l i nfo-pr ocessi ng uni t. Nodes Smal connected r ecei ve & tr ansmi t si gnal s, & acti vated when i nput r eaches thr eshol d acti Connecti ons become str onger / weaker & Connecti n etwor k r ecogni zes & di sti ngui shes dii ffer ent sti mul i d P a r a l l el Pa di str i buted pr ocessi ng (PD P) model s: V ar i ous nodes ( PD d i str i buted t hr oughout networ k fi r e i n par al l el at each i nstant & si mul taneousl y spr ead acti vati on to other nodes other T YPES OF LON G-T ERM M EM ORY Decl ar ati ve & Pr ocedur al M emor y: Decl ar ati ve & Pr ocedur al M emor y: D ecl a r a ti ve memor y: f actual knowl edge k nowl Epi sodi c memor y: stor e of knowl edge concer ni ng per sonal exper i ences: when, w her e, & what happened i n the epi sodes of our l i ves epi Sema nti c memor y: gener al factual k nowl edge about the wor l d & l anguage, i ncl udi ng memor y for wor ds & concepts (e=mc2) (e=mc2) P r ocedur a l (nondecl a r a ti ve Pr m emor y): r efl ected i n ski l l s & acti ons Cl assi cal l y condi ti oned r esponses— Expl i ci t & I mpl i ci t M emor y: T YPES OF LON G-T ERM M EM ORY Expl i ci t memor y: consci ous & i ntenti onal memor y r etr i eval Consci ousl y r ecogni ze i f sti mul us fami l i ar —mul ti pl e choi ce, pol i ce l i neup; f ami or or somethi ng (spontaneous memor y r etr i eval —l i st). Cued r ecal l h i nts hi gii ven g Recal l I mpl i ci t memor y: m emor y i nfl uences behavi or w/ o consci ous awar eness (amnesi ac pr i cked wi th pi n) (amnesi Pr i mi ng Pr tasks i nfo fr om or i gi nal l i st R etr i eva l : Accessi ng I nfor ma ti on Retr i eva l cue: sti mul us, w hether i nter nal or exter nal , t hat acti vates i nfo stor ed i n L TM T H E VALU E OF M U LT I PLE CU ES CU 3 Assoc Vs. 1 Assoc 91% 51% i f other s 61% 11% i f other s 1 week l ater 65% T H E VALU E OF M U LT I PLE CU ES CU Wi th encodi ng: Gener ati ng Gener own associ ati ons i nvol ves deeper pr ocessi ng d eeper Pl us, 3 associ ati ons i nvol ves deeper Pl pr ocessi ng pr Wi th r etr i eval Sel f-gener ated Sel associ ati ons become cues wi th per sonal meeti ng cues Wi th mul ti pl e cues, i f 1 fai l s, another Wi may acti vate memor y m ay T H E VALU E OF D I ST I N CT I VEN ESS Spar r ow—eagl e—nest—owl — feather —goose—cr ow—cucumber —r ooster —fl y—r obi n—par r ot— chi r p—hawk—pi geon—WRI TE M ost di sti ncti ve most r emember ed When al l mater i al l ooks the same, When m ake i t mor e di sti ncti ve by associ ati ng wi th meani ngful i nfo t o YOU gr eater chance i n L TM gr as vi vi d & cl ear as AROU SAL, EM OT I ON , & M EM ORY WH Y? Str ess hor mones r el eased i ncr eased Str amygdal a acti vati on emoti onal emoti aspects encoded i nto L TM aspects Autobi ogr a phi ca l memor i es: r ecol l ecti ons of per sonal l y exper i enced events that make up stor i es of our l i ves stor Recal l Recal most vi vi dl y mor e i ntense events events E moti onal i ty of unpl easant events Emoti d ecr eased qui cker than pl easant & than memor i es of them t han AROU SAL, EM OT I ON , & M EM ORY B UT BUT W/ mi l dl y depr essed ppl , i ntensi ty faded W/ at same r ate. at M emor i es of tr aumati c exper i ences may r emai n emoti onal l y i ntense for year s D i sti ncti ve & emoti onal l y ar ousi ng m or e Di mor vii vi d r ecal l v BUT A ccur acy not guar anteed (even i f we say Accur we r emember them l i ke yester day) we Fl a shbul b memor i es: r ecol l ecti ons t hat seem so vi vi d, so cl ear , that we can pi ctur e them as i f they wer e snapshots of moments i n ti me snapshots T H E EFFECT S OF CON T EXT , ST AT E, & M OOD ON M EM ORY ST Encodi ng speci fi ci ty pr i nci pl e: m emor y enhanced when condi ti ons pr esent dur i ng r etr i eval match those pr esent dur i ng encodi ng pr sti mul i associ ated ser ve as r etr i eval sti cues cues Context-D ependent M emor y: Retur ni ng to the Scene Retur E asi er Easi to r emember somethi ng i n same envi r onment i t was or i gi nal l y encoded encoded H i gh school , ol d nei ghbor hood, cr i me scene cr T H E EFFECT S OF CON T EXT , ST AT E, & M OOD ON M EM ORY ST Sta te-D ependent M emor y: Ar ousal , Dr ugs, & M ood Ar A bi l i ty Abi to r etr i eve i nfo i s gr eater w hen i nter nal state at ti me of r etr i eval matches or i gi nal state dur i ng l ear ni ng d ur Physi cal ar ousal fr om exer ci se E vents exper i enced i n dr ugged Events state state BUT M ood-dependent memor y N OT r el i abl e M ood-congr uent r eca l l : r ecal l i nfo/ events that ar e congr uent wii th our cur r ent mood w For getti ng F or T H E COU RSE OF FORGET T I N G F ORGET Wor ds/l a ngua g e D a ys/yea r s WH Y D O WE FORGET ? WH D i ffi cul ti es i n ENCODI NG, Di STORAGE, & RETRI EVAL STORAGE, Encodi ng Fai l ur e: M uch of what we sense si mpl y i sn’t pr ocessed deepl y enough to commi t to memor y m emor attenti on to somethi ng el se WH Y? We tur n Sexual Sexual & vi ol ent pr ogr ams l ess ads r emember ed (pr eoccupati on wi th thoughts about show content) t houghts WH Y D O WE FORGET ? WH Decay of the M emor y Tr ace: D eca y theor y: w i th ti me & di suse t he l ong-ter m physi cal memor y tr ace i n the NS fades away tr T ested Tested thr u studyi ng neur al ci r cui t changes changes Recal l Recal B UT what about r emi ni scence? BUT dur i ng 2nd testi ng what’s for gotten i n 1st test f or Actor s r emember l i nes 2 yr s l ater Debate sti l l on I nter fer ence: WH Y D O WE FORGET ? WH Other i tems i n L TM i mpai r abi l i ty to Other r etr i eve l ear ned i n past i nter fer es wi th r ecal l of newer mater i al (ol d phone #) n ewer Retr oa cti ve i nter fer ence: n ewl y acqui r ed i nfo i nter fer es wi th abi l i ty to r ecal l i nfo l ear ned ear l i er (ol d phone #); esp. wi th si mi l ar sets of i nfo (phone number vs. Fr ench vocab) n umber WH Y? B r ai n takes ti me to conver t STM i nto Br L TM w hen new i nfo enter s system i t when d i sr upts conver si on of ol der i nfo i nto L TM . Once L TM for med competi ti on b/ w Once competi r etr i eval cues (or cues too weak/ few) Pr oa cti ve i nter fer ence: m ater i al WH Y D O WE FORGET ? WH M oti vated For getti ng: Consci ousl y/ Consci unconsci ousl y moti vated to for get m oti Fr eud Repr essi on: m oti vati onal pr ocess t hat pr otects by bl ocki ng consci ous r ecal l of anxi ety-ar ousi ng memor i es BUT Peopl e for get pl easant events too Repr essi on OR nor mal i nfor mati onpr ocessi ng fai l ur es?? AM N ESI A AM : M emor y l oss due to speci al condi ti ons, l i ke br ai n i njur y, i l l ness, psychol ogi cal tr auma psychol R etr ogr a de & Anter ogr a de Retr Amnesi a : Amnesi R etr ogr a de: m emor y Retr l oss for events t hat took pl ace SOM ETI M E i n l i fe befor e onset of amnesi a befor l oss for events that occur after i ni ti al onset of amnesi a amnesi H M ’s r emoval Anter ogr a de: m emor y of hi ppocampus AM N ESI A AM D ementi a & Al zhei mer ’s D i sea se: D ementi a : i mpai r ed memor y & other cogni ti ve defi ci ts that accompany br ai n degener ati on & i nter fer e wi th nor mal functi oni ng (most pr eval ent among el der l y) (most (AD ): pr ogr essi ve br ai n di sor der most common cause of dementi a among adul ts over 65 (2-4%) adul Al zhei mer ’s di sea se AM N ESI A AM D ementi a & Al zhei mer ’s D i sea se: Pr ogr essi ve: for getful ness, poor judgment, Pr d i sor i entati on; i mpai r ed memor y for r ecent i nfo; attacks hi ppocampus; neur ons d amage, br ai n ti ssue shr i nks, neur on communi cati on i mpai r ed, esp. A cetyl chol i ne; wor ki ng memor y & L TM w or sen; anter ogr ade & r etr ogr ade amnesi a; pr ocedur al , semanti c, epi sodi c, & pr ospecti ve memor y affected; cannot l ear n new tasks; for get fami l i ar tasks; t r oubl e r ecogni zi ng; l anguage pr obl ems, d i sor gani zed thi nki ng, mood & per sonal i ty changes; cannot speak, wal k & contr ol bl adder & bowel functi ons. contr Pr eci se causes unknown: Ear l y-onset AD genes but onl y for 5-10%. One GENE di r ects pr otei n pr oducti on that One car r i es chol ester ol ; hi gh chol ester ol & AM N ESI A AM I nfa nti l e (Chi l dhood) Amnesi a : m emor y l oss for ear l y Amnesi exper i ences (1st 3-4 yr s) BUT may r ecal l major events (hospi tal , bi r th, death) d eath) Causes: 1) B r ai n r egi ons that encode epi sodi c Br L TM sti l l i mmatur e 2) We don’t encode deepl y and for m r i ch We r etr i eval cues 3) I nfants l ack cl ear sel f-concept n o no per sonal fr ame of r efer ence ar ound Pl ease r ead thi s I ndi an stor y: T wo hunter s met Two some war r i or s i n canoes, & one of these hunter s joi ns t he war r i or s i n a r ai d. Eventual l y h e di scover s that these war r i or s ar e ghosts. I n the end, the he di es myster i ousl y. m yster these wor ds Pl ease r ead Sour H oney Candy Sugar Chocol ateBi tter Good Cake T ar t Tooth Pi e Soda H ear t Taste Ni ce M emor y a s a C onstr ucti ve Pr ocess Pr Sketchy/I ncompl ete Sketchy/I Retr i eva l s R etr Rosy Gl a sses M EM ORY D I ST ORT I ON & SCH EM AS SCH Retel l the stor y you’ve r ead a few Retel mii nutes ago m Dr aw the pi ctur e you saw ear l i er Remember the wor ds you saw Remember befor e befor Who r emember s thei r r eacti on Who when they saw the 1st pl ane that w hen hii t the twi n tower s? h Schema: gener al i zed i dea about how events h appen, used to or gani ze i nfo & constr uct m emor i es; encode or r etr i eve i n way to fi t our pr eexi sti ng assumpti ons about wor l d pr M EM ORY D I ST ORT I ON & SCH EM AS SCH Boundar y extensi on: r emember scene as mor e expansi ve m or Cr i ti cal l ur e (sweet): found i n r ecal l & r ecogni ti on tasks; confi dence despi te knowi ng i t’s a memor y test k nowi A bductees fal sel y r ecal l ed & r ecogni zed Abductees m or e cr i ti cal l ur es than contr ol gr oup & t hose wi th expl i ci t memor i es made most r ecogni ti on er r or s m ost Confusi on over sour ce of memor y Confusi M I SI N FORM AT I ON EFFECT S & EYEWI T N ESS T EST I M ON Y E YEWI M i si nfor ma ti on effect: d i stor ti on of memor y by mi sl eadi ng postevent i nfo Suspect Suspect had 1) pol i te manner & 2) may be pr i est m ay Even 1-2 wor ds can do that “ H ow fast wer e car s goi ng when t he contacted/ hi t/ bumped i nto/ col l i ded wi th/ smashed i nto each other ?” each M I SI N FORM AT I ON EFFECT S & EYEWI T N ESS T EST I M ON Y E YEWI Sour ce confusi on: stor e m oni tor i ng er r or —tendency to r ecal l somethi ng/ r ecogni ze i t as fami l i ar but to for get wher e we encounter ed i t but Pi ck guy fr om l i neup after mug shots L sn to mi sl eadi ng, suggesti ve statements statements questi on eyewi tness r el i abi l i ty T H E CH I LD AS EYEWI T N ESS Accur acy & Suggesti bi l i ty: si ngl e suggesti ve questi on l eads to fal se memor i es to Sam Stone" was cl umsy, messy,… I ni ti al l y chi l d deni es then acknowl edges abuse acknowl I s i t because 1st was r el uctant to open up, or di d suggesti ve questi ons pr oduce fal se al l egati on? pr Recal l of Tr aumati c Events: after Recal sur ger y, ki ds mi stakenl y agr eed wi th 15% of l eadi ng questi ons 15% E ven Even T H E CH I LD AS EYEWI T N ESS T r ue Vs. Fal se Repor ts: Can Tr Pr ofessi onal s Tel l them Apar t? Pr N O: NO: maybe they ar e not i ntenti onal l y l yi ng, but bel i eve memor y i s accur ate Pay attenti on to how admi ssi on of Pay abuse i s el i ci ted abuse M i ni mi ze suggesti ve i nter vi ewi ng T H E RECOVERED M EM ORY CON T ROVERSY C ON H ypnosi s, dr ugs, & other tr eatments 1. 2. When memor y r ecover ed, i s i t When accur ate? accur I f i t’s tr ue, what caused for getti ng? Exposed to suggesti ve questi oni ng F al se memor i es of per sonal Fal chi l dhood chi I njur ed ani mal s i n M oscow’s 1999 ter r or i st bomb t er T her e was no i mmedi ate footage of Ther the fi r st pl ane hi tti ng the twi n tower t he T H E RECOVERED M EM ORY CON T ROVERSY C ON D i ffi cul ty to study that Di exper i mental l y exper Or di nar y sour ces of for getti ng; Or i ntenti onal l y avoi di ng thi nki ng; r ei nter pr et tr auma to make i t l ess upsetti ng; OR r epr essi on??? u psetti Cannot tap i nto sexual abuse for Cannot ethi cal r easons, but SCI ENCE says w e shoul dn’t take accur acy at face val ue val PERH APS futur e exami nati ons of PERH patter ns of br ai n acti vi ty patter C U LT U RE & M EM ORY CON ST RU CT I ON C ON Cul tur al sur vi val depends on Cul tr ansmi tti ng k/ l & customs tr A l so, cul tur e i nfl uences memor y Al shapes schemas & how we shapes encode & r econstr uct events encode C U LT U RE & M EM ORY CON ST RU CT I ON C ON Wi th ear l i est memor i es: A mer i cans r ecal l events of i ndi vi dual Amer exper i ence & sel f-deter mi nati on (I was… exper When I …) Chi nese r ecal l fami l y/ nei ghbor hood Chi acti vi ti es (Dad taught me poems whi l e washi ng vegetabl es) w ashi Amer i cans’ ear l i est memor i es at 3.5 yr s si ngl e di sti ncti ve events i nvol ve gr eater si emoti onal i ty? emoti M or e r outi ne events that i nvol ve col l ecti ve acti vi ty? acti Chi nese at 4 yr s M aor i adul ts—whose tr adi ti onal cul tur e str ongl y val ues the past—r ecal l ed ear l i est per sonal memor i es per ...
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