Ch_09 - I ntelligence I ntelligence Chapter I X Chapter I X...

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Unformatted text preview: I ntelligence I ntelligence Chapter I X Chapter I X What is your conception of smart? Are some people generally more intelligent than others? I s it nature or nurture? I ntelligence: ability to acquire knowledge, think & reason effectively, & deal adaptively with the environment I ntelligence in I ntelligence in H istor ical H istor ical Per spective Per spective SI R FRAN CI S GALTON SI R FRAN CI S GALTON QUAN TI FYI N G MEN TAL ABI LI TY Eminence & genius seem to occur within certain families I nherited mental constitutions more fit for thinking BUT Are they more privileged? ALFRED BI N ET ALFRED BI N ET MEN TAL TESTS Some children unable to benefit from normal public schooling 1) Mental abilities develop with age 2) Rate they gain mental competence is fairly constant Asked teachers standardized interview mental age placement based on mental age Sterns intelligence quotient (I Q): MA/ CA x ALFRED BI N ET ALFRED BI N ET I NTELLI GENCE-TESTI NG I NDUSTRY EMERGES Stanford-Binet: mostly verbal; single I Q score WWI Army Alpha & Army Beta Lorge-Thorndike I ntelligence Test & the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test David Wechsler: measured distinct but related verbal and nonverbal abilities WAI S, WI SC, WPPSI ALFRED BI N ET ALFRED BI N ET Controversy: I s intelligence single aptitude or many specific abilities? I s it innate or product of upbringing? What brain processes underlie skills? Are there actually multiple intelligences? Just what is intelligence? The Natur e of The Natur e of I ntelligence I ntelligence Two major approaches Two major approaches PSYCH OMETRI C APPROACH PSYCH OMETRI C APPROACH STRUCTURE of I NTELLI GENCE Psychometr ics: statistical study of psychological tests Factor Analysis: Reduces large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters, or factors, with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters But what are these clusters? Up to us to infer nature of underlying abilities Not totally unrelated more general mental PSYCH OMETRI C APPROACH PSYCH OMETRI C APPROACH STRUCTURE of I NTELLI GENCE The The g Factor : g Factor : I ntelligence as General Mental I ntelligence as General Mental Capacity: Capacity: General intelligence; General intelligence; cuts across virtually all tasks cuts across virtually all tasks core of core of intelligence intelligence Charles Spearman: grades in different subjects Charles Spearman: grades in different subjects correlated positively but not perfectly correlated positively but not perfectly more more basic/general mental capacity basic/general mental capacity Predicts job success better than specific measures Predicts job success better than specific measures most important dimension in study of cognitive most important dimension in study of cognitive abilities yet abilities yet...
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Ch_09 - I ntelligence I ntelligence Chapter I X Chapter I X...

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