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Unformatted text preview: The Science of Psychology Psychology Chapter Outline Chapter The nature of psychology Perspectives on behavior Using levels of analysis to integrate the Using perspectives perspectives Psychology today What is Psychology (Ψ)? Psychology - The scientific study of behavior & the The mind mind Behavior: observable actions & responses Mind: internal states & processes (e.g. thoughts & Mind: feelings; inferred from responses) feelings; - Psychological research provides us with Psychological tools to: Understand ourselves Improve our lives & promote human welfare Improve (challenges common held beliefs; critical thinking) (challenges Ψ as a Basic & Applied Science Robber’s cave exp & Jigsaw classroom program Basic science: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake (why people behave, think, & feel as they do) sake Applied science: designed to solve specific & practical problems problems The 5 Central Goals of Ψ 1. 2. 3. 4. 4. 5. To describe how people & other species behave To describe To understand the causes of behavior To understand To predict behavior under certain conditions To predict To influence behavior through controlling its causes To influence To apply Ψcal knowledge to enhance human welfare To apply Broad Levels of Analysis Broad (e.g. Depression) Biological level: brain processes, genetic influences,…. brain Psychological level: our thoughts, feelings, motives,… our Environmental level: our exposure to past & current physical & social environments physical Mind-Body & Nature-Nurture interactions Robber’s cave exp & Jigsaw classroom program cave How did Ψ become so broad? broad? Early Perspectives on Behavior Early Philosophers: - Body-Mind Dualism (Descartes): mind is spiritual & separate from physical body; both interact in the brain’s pineal gland separate Monism (Hobbes): Body & mind are one; mind can be studied by measuring physical brain processes studied British Empiricism (Locke): All ideas & images are gained empirically through the senses (observation) gained continuity continuity Evolution (Darwin): human mind is product of biological (Darwin) Modern Discoveries in Physiology & Medicine Early Schools: Structuralism Early (1800s) (1800s) The analysis of the mind (consciousness) in terms of its basic elements through introspection (how senses its work) work) Mind studied by breaking it into basic components Basic building blocks—structures—of the mind Experimental Ψ laboratories (Wundt &Titchener) (Wundt Experimental Participants exposed to stimuli Then asked to describe inner experiences Early Schools: Functionalism Early Study the functions of consciousness (why senses work) (why Influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory (adaptation) Influenced Darwin’s Research on learning & problem solving W. James broadened the scope of Ψ to include behavior, biological, & mental processes behavior, Set the stage for Cognitive & Evolutionary Psychology Set Cognitive Evolutionary Psychodynamic Perspective Psychodynamic (THE FORCES WITHIN) (THE Freud’s psychodynamic theory - Searches for causes of behavior within the inner workings of personality Searches (traits, emotions & motives) through unconscious processes (traits, Hypnosis & Free Association Hypnosis Ψcal forces that lead to the development of defense mechanisms cal defense Psychoanalysis: the analysis of internal & primarily unconscious Modern psychodynamic theory: - Role of hidden sexual & aggressive motives downplayed Object relations theory focuses on how early experiences with caregivers Object shape views of self & others shape Conscious unawareness exists! The Behavioral Perspective (THE POWER OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (THE - Behaviorism Rooted in Empiricism: Locke (mind is a tabula rasa), Pavlov (classical Locke tabula ), Pavlov conditioning), & Thorndike (law of effect & learning) Thorndike Watson opposed mentalism & stressed observable behavior & basic Watson principles of learning as proper subject matter of Ψ Skinner acknowledged the existence of inner thoughts, but that man is passive environment causes behavior (radical behaviorism) passive Dominated Ψ for sometime, led to effective treatments for many disorders, & Dominated set the basis for laws of learning set - Cognitive Behaviorism (Bandura) : learning experiences & environment influence our (Bandura) expectations & thoughts which influence behavior expectations The Humanistic Perspective (SELF-ACTUALIZING & POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY) (SELF-ACTUALIZING Free will, personal growth, attempt to find meaning in one’s Free existence existence Uniqueness of one’s perceptions & experiences Man is active Man Maslow: we have inborn tendencies toward self-actualization self-actualization Rogers: scientific study of psychotherapy & processes that lead to constructive changes lead Positive psychology movement: the study of human strengths, fulfillment & optimal living strengths, The Cognitive Perspective The (THE THINKING HUMAN) (THE Gestalt psychology (1920s): how elements of experience are organized into wholes experience “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” Cognitive Revolution Computer technology Debate between behaviorists & linguistics on language Debate acquisition acquisition Jean Piaget: thinking processes of developing children The Cognitive Perspective The (THE THINKING HUMAN) (THE The Modern Cognitive Perspective Cognitive psych: study of mental processes Cognitive study Cognitive neuroscience: uses sophisticated Cognitive electrical recording & brain-imaging techniques to examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks cognitive Social constructivism: what we consider “reality” Social is largely our own mental creation is Sociocultural Perspective Sociocultural (THE EMBEDDED HUMAN) Social env’t & cultural learning influences our behavior, Social thoughts & feelings thoughts Culture: enduring values, beliefs, behaviors, & enduring traditions shared by group & passed thru generations traditions Social Norms Socialization Cultural (cross-cultural) Ψ Cultural Individualism Collectivism Biological Perspective Biological How brain processes & other bodily functions regulate How behavior behavior Behavioral Neuroscience (Physiological Ψ): examines brain processes & other physiological functions that underlie behavior, sensory experiences, emotions, & thoughts emotions, Behavior Genetics: how behavioral tendencies are influenced by genetic factors (twins, animals bred for traits) (twins, Evolutionary Ψ: evolution shaped modern human Evolutionary behavior (Darwin’’s process of natural selection) s behavior natural Understanding Behavior Environmental Factors Psychological Factors Biological Factors Specialty Areas in Psychology Clinical 43% Specialty Areas in Psychology Counseling 11% Specialty Areas in Psychology Developmental 4% Specialty Areas in Psychology Educational 5% Specialty Areas in Psychology Experimental 8% Specialty Areas in Psychology Industrial 7% Specialty Areas in Psychology Personality 4% Specialty Areas in Psychology School 7% Specialty Areas in Psychology Social 7% Specialty Areas in Psychology Others 9% Why did the chicken cross the road? cross The behavioral perspective The She has been reinforced in the past for crossing the road. Note the behavioral crossing Note perspective focuses upon how the environment has shaped the chicken’s behavior. The biological perspective The The neurons on her motor strip fired. Of Of course, the biological perspective focuses on the part of the brain associated with that motor activity. The cognitive perspective The She wanted to cross the road. Note that the cognitive psychologist focuses upon a conscious cognitive motive or “want” for the behavior. The humanist perspective The It doesn’t matter....chickens aren’t It humans! The humanist is focusing upon humans! the uniquely human qualities of the question, and in essence challenging the assumption that we can learn anything about human behavior from animal behavior The psychodynamic perspective The She has a death wish. The The psychodynamic perspective focuses on an unconscious motive. The sociocultural perspective The It all depends; is it an Asian, European, or It South American chicken? The South sociocultural perspective focuses upon the unique elements of the chicken’s culture and how they influence its behavior. and Question: Dr. Jones and Dr. Lee are arguing over the cause of some behavior. Dr. Jones suggests that we must consider how the mind works and possible unconscious motivating factors. Dr. Lee insists that we forget completely about the mind and focus on the stimulus-response association. Most likely…? a. Jones takes the psychodynamic approach while Lee is a behaviorist. b. Lee uses functionalism while Jones follows the Gestalt tradition. c. Jones is a functionalist while Lee is a behaviorist. d. Both Jones and Lee take the Psychodynamic approach. Correct Answer: a. Jones takes the psychodynamic approach while Lee is a behaviorist. a. Lee uses functionalism while Jones follows the Gestalt tradition. b. Jones is a functionalist while Lee is a behaviorist. c. Both Jones and Lee take the Psychodynamic approach. Question: Professor Dietrich views the causes of schizophrenia as strictly biological, while Professor Kazarian sees the causes as completely environmental. Both are wrong. Why? a. The causes of abnormal behavior are best described at the psychological level. b. The causes of abnormal behavior are best described in terms of psychodynamic principles. Why? a. Interaction must be considered – both levels are likely involved and each influences the other. b. There are no known explanations for schizophrenia. c. The best psychological explanation is always cognitive. Correct answer: a. Interaction must be considered – both levels are likely involved and each influences the other. a. There are no known explanations for schizophrenia. b. The best psychological explanation is always cognitive. Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology Levels of Analysis ...
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