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Learning_Adaptation - LEARNING LEARNING ADAPTATION Chapter...

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LEARNING LEARNING & & ADAPTATION ADAPTATION Chapter VI
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How much of your behavior is learned? Learning process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behavior or capabilities
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Adapting to the Environment
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HOW DO WE LEARN ? MECHANISMS Behaviorism Tabula Rasa
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WHY DO WE LEARN? FUNCTIONS Ethology NO tabula rasa Adaptive significance: behavior influences organism’s chances of survival & reproduction in natural environment Fixed action pattern: unlearned response automatically triggered by particular stimulus (herring gulls) Some patterns are modified by experience (age) Many of what appears instinctive actually involves learning (learn which star)
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LEARNING, CULTURE, & EVOLUTION Beh + Eth environment shapes behavior thru 1. Personal adaptation 2. Species adaptation We have become prewired to learn. Must learn: which events are/not important to survival & well- being which stimuli signal important event will occur whether response will produce positive/negative consequences
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HABITUATION Decrease in strength of response to a repeated stimulus Adaptive to conserve energy & attend to other stimuli instead of being overwhelmed & exhausted by every stimulus
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Classical Conditioning: Associating one Stimulus with Another
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PAVLOV’S RESEARCH Classical conditioning: organism learns to associate two stimuli, such that one stimulus comes to elicit a response that originally was elicited only by the other stimulus (song memory) Is adaptive alerts organism to stimuli that signal impending arrival of important event
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BASIC PRINCIPLES Acquisition: period response is being learned Tone neutral stimulus Salivation reflexive response
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1. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS —food) Unconditioned response (UCR —salivation) 1. Learning trials: Conditioned stimulus (CS —tone ) + UCS Conditioned response (CR) 1. CS —tone CR —salivation
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Conditioning strongest when: 1. Repeated pairings 1. UCS is more intense (single trial) 1. Forward pairing (forward trace) 1. Time interval b/w CS & UCS is short
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Terms in classical conditioning Extinction (what about a phobia?) Spontaneous recovery Stimulus generalization (rustling bushes) Discrimination (trains, bicycles...) Higher-order conditioning (black square)
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APPLICATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Acquiring & Overcoming Fear: Albert Exposure therapy : systematic desensitization or flooding Attraction & Aversion: Aversion therapy & advertisements Sickness & Health Allergic Reactions Anticipatory Nausea & Vomiting (ANV) The Immune System
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Operant Conditioning Learning through Consequences
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THORNDIKE’S LAW OF EFFECT Trial & error Instrumental learning Law of effect: in a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur & a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur learning by Operant conditioning
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SKINNER’S ANALYSIS Skinner box
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