Learning_Adaptation - LEARNING LEARNING &...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–17. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: LEARNING LEARNING & & ADAPTATION ADAPTATION Chapter VI How much of your behavior is learned? Learning process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organisms behavior or capabilities Adapting to the Environment HOW DO WE LEARN ? MECHANISMS Behaviorism Tabula Rasa WHY DO WE LEARN? FUNCTIONS Ethology NO tabula rasa Adaptive significance: behavior influences organisms chances of survival & reproduction in natural environment Fixed action pattern: unlearned response automatically triggered by particular stimulus (herring gulls) Some patterns are modified by experience (age) Many of what appears instinctive actually involves learning (learn which star) LEARNING, CULTURE, & EVOLUTION Beh + Eth environment shapes behavior thru 1. Personal adaptation 2. Species adaptation We have become prewired to learn. Must learn: which events are/not important to survival & well- being which stimuli signal important event will occur whether response will produce positive/negative consequences HABITUATION Decrease in strength of response to a repeated stimulus Adaptive to conserve energy & attend to other stimuli instead of being overwhelmed & exhausted by every stimulus Classical Conditioning: Associating one Stimulus with Another PAVLOVS RESEARCH Classical conditioning: organism learns to associate two stimuli, such that one stimulus comes to elicit a response that originally was elicited only by the other stimulus (song memory) Is adaptive alerts organism to stimuli that signal impending arrival of important event BASIC PRINCIPLES Acquisition: period response is being learned Tone neutral stimulus Salivation reflexive response 1. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS food) Unconditioned response (UCR salivation) 1. Learning trials: Conditioned stimulus (CS tone ) + UCS Conditioned response (CR) 1. CS tone CR salivation Conditioning strongest when: 1. Repeated pairings 1. UCS is more intense (single trial) 1. Forward pairing (forward trace) 1. Time interval b/w CS & UCS is short Terms in classical conditioning Extinction (what about a phobia?) Spontaneous recovery Stimulus generalization (rustling bushes) Discrimination (trains, bicycles...) Higher-order conditioning (black square) APPLICATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Acquiring & Overcoming Fear: Albert Exposure therapy : systematic desensitization or flooding Attraction & Aversion: Aversion therapy & advertisements Sickness & Health Allergic Reactions Anticipatory Nausea & Vomiting (ANV) The Immune System Operant Conditioning Learning through Consequences THORNDIKES LAW OF EFFECT Trial & error Instrumental learning Law of effect: in a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur & a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur learning by Operant conditioning SKINNERS ANALYSIS...
View Full Document

Page1 / 56

Learning_Adaptation - LEARNING LEARNING &...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 17. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online