Chapter_2-biomaterials - Biomaterials Prepared by:...

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MECH634 AUB Page 1 Biomaterials Prepared by: Nasser-Eddin M., Ph.D
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MECH634 AUB Page 2 Introduction Millions of lives have been saved due to biomaterials and the quality of life for millions more is improved every year due to biomaterials. Biomaterials have made an enormous impact on the treatment of injury and disease and are used throughout the body.
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MECH634 AUB Page 3 Statistics Estimates of the numbers of biomedical devices incorporating biomaterials used in the United States in 2002 : there are still many unanswered questions regarding the biological response to biomaterials and the optimal role of biomaterials in tissue regeneration that continue to motivate biomaterials research and new product development. In  medicine , a  stent   is a tube that is inserted into a natural conduit of the body to prevent or counteract a disease-induced localized flow constriction 
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MECH634 AUB Page 4 Evolution Biomaterials: First developed to replace organs that no longer function in the proper manner Impaired function can be cause by inherited defects, old age, disease, accidents … As our understanding of tissues, disease, and trauma improved, the concept of attempting to repair damaged tissues emerged More recently, with the advent of stem cell research, medicine believes it will be possible to regenerate damaged or diseased tissues by cell-based tissue engineering approaches
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MECH634 AUB Page 5 A Little History on Biomaterials Romans, Chinese, and Aztecs used gold in  dentistry over 2000. Ivory & wood teeth Aseptic surgery 1860 (Lister) Bone plates 1900, joints 1930 1960- Polyethylene and stainless steel being  used for hip implants
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MECH634 AUB Page 6 History (cont.) Before 1950: Metals and alloys used for dental and orthopedic surgery Polyester Tricot used as vascular prosthesis Note: Materials not designed initially for medical applications Fatigue tests, Resistance to corrosion, chemical effects tested later After WWII: Quality control procedures applied to production of biomaterials to avoid toxic effects 1970’s: Titanium (low density and toxicity, High resistance to failure and corrosion) replaced Nickel in orthopedic applications 1992 : the Total Artificial Heart, that can simulate a natural shape of a pulse pressure is patented Today: 3 rd generation biomaterials: Smart systems- Systems used for cells regeneration
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MECH634 AUB Page 7 Definition I Williams in 1987 defined a biomaterial as ‘‘a nonviable material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems.’’ This definition still holds true today and encompasses the earliest use of biomaterials replacing form (e.g., wooden leg, glass eye) as well as the current use of biomaterials in regenerative medical devices such as a biodegradable scaffold used to deliver cells for tissue engineering.
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MECH634 AUB Page 8 Definition II A biomaterial is "any substance (other than drugs) or combination of substances synthetic or natural in origin, which can be
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course MECH 633 taught by Professor Mohammadnasserdine during the Spring '10 term at American University of Beirut.

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Chapter_2-biomaterials - Biomaterials Prepared by:...

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