chapter_2-biomaterials-2009

chapter_2-biomaterials-2009 - MECH634 AUB Page 1...

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Unformatted text preview: MECH634 AUB Page 1 Biomaterials Prepared by: Nasser-Eddin M., Ph.D PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com MECH634 AUB Page 2 BIOMATERIALS • OBJECTIVES To introduce the different biomaterials used in biomedical engineering, provide some fundamental properties of these materials, and indicate how they are used. • OUTLINE – Introduction • need for biomaterials, definition of biocompatibility • introduce classes of biomaterials – Material properties – Metals – Ceramics – Polymers P D F C r e a t e d w i th d e s k P D F P D F W r i te r- T r ia l : : h t tp : / /w w w .d o c u d e s k . c o m Background MECH634 AUB Page 3 • Historically, biomaterials consisted of materials common in the laboratories of physicians, with little consideration of material properties. • Early biomaterials : – Gold: Malleable, inert metal (does not oxidize); used in dentistry by Chinese, Aztecs and Romans--dates 2000 years – Iron, brass: High strength metals; rejoin fractured femur (1775) – Glass: Hard ceramic; used to replace eye (purely cosmetic) – Wood: Natural composite; high strength to weight; used for limb prostheses – and artificial teeth – Bone: Natural composite; uses: needles, decorative piercings – Sausage casing: cellulose membrane used for early dialysis (W Kolff) – Other: Ant pincers. Central American Indians used to suture wounds P D F C r e a t e d w i th d e s k P D F P D F W r i te r- T r ia l : : h t tp : / /w w w .d o c u d e s k . c o m MECH634 AUB Page 4 Introduction Millions of lives have been saved due to biomaterials and the quality of life for millions more is improved every year due to biomaterials. Biomaterials have made an enormous impact on the treatment of injury and disease and are used throughout the body. P D F C r e a t e d w i th d e s k P D F P D F W r i te r- T r ia l : : h t tp : / /w w w .d o c u d e s k . c o m MECH634 AUB Page 5B. Amsden CHEE 340 EXAMPLES OF USES OF BIOMATERIALS Organ/Tissue Examples heart pacemaker, artificial valve, artificial heart eye contact lens, intraocular lens ear artificial stapes, cochlea implant bone bone plate, intramedullary rod, joint prosthesis, bone cement, bone defect repair kidney dialysis machine bladder catheter and stent muscle sutures, muscle stimulator circulation artificial blood vessels skin burn dressings, artificial skin endocrine encapsulated pancreatic islet cells P D F C r e a t e d w i th d e s k P D F P D F W r i te r- T r ia l : : h t tp : / /w w w .d o c u d e s k . c o m MECH634 AUB Page 6B. Amsden CHEE 340 MATERIAL ATTRIBUTES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS Property Desirables Biocompatibility Noncarcinogenic, nonpyrogenic, nontoxic, nonallergenic, blood compatible, non-inflammatory Sterilizability Not destroyed by typical sterilizing techniques such as autoclaving, dry heat, radiation, ethylene oxide Physical characteristics Strength, elasticity, durability Manufacturability Machinable, moldable, extrudable P D F C r e a t e d w i th d e s k P D F P D F W r i te r- T r ia l : : h t tp : / /w w w .d o c u d e s k . c o m MECH634...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course MECH 633 taught by Professor Mohammadnasserdine during the Spring '10 term at American University of Beirut.

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chapter_2-biomaterials-2009 - MECH634 AUB Page 1...

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