Psych chapter 4 notes

Psych chapter 4 notes - Psych chapter 4 notes 2nd test...

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Psych chapter 4 notes 2 nd test October 6 and 8, 2009 and Development 1. Development - is the product of several processes a. Physical processes i. Puberty, menopause, changes in the brain b. Cognitive processes i. What we learn, intellectual development c. Socioemotional processes i. Our interactions with friends and family change throughout development 2. Nature vs. Nurture a. Nurture : environmental causes of behavior (the influence of parents, siblings, friends, schooling, nutrition and other experiences) i. Vs, b. Nature : Hereditary causes of behavior (those based on the genetic makeup of an individual that influence growth and development throughout life) 3. How Do Nature and Nurture Work Together? a. They operate together to make all people alike as human beings i. Biological maturation b. The both operate to make each person unique i. Heredity creates predispositions that interact with environmental influences 4. Nature vs. nurture a. Psychologists today agree that both nature and nurture interact to produce specific developmental patterns and outcome. b. The question has evolved into how and to what degree do environment and heredity both produce their results? 5. Do early experiences rule us for life? a. Some psychologists believe that unless infants experience warm, nurturing care in the first year of life, they will not develop to their full potential b. The early experience doctrine rests on the belief that each life is an unbroken trail on which psychological quality can be traced back to its origin. 6. Do later experiences weigh the same as early ones? a. Late experiences advocates argue that children are responsive to change and that sensitive care giving is just as important later as it is earlier b. Most developmentalists do not take extreme positions on the issue of early versus later experience. 7. Progress before Birth: Prenatal Development a. 3 phases b. Germinal stage = first 2 weeks i. Conception, implantation, formation of placenta c. Embryonic stage = 2 weeks – 2 months i. Formation of vital organs and systems ii. Heart, nervous system, stomach, esophagus, and ovaries of testes form iii. By two months, embryo looks decidedly human iv. This is a critical period in prenatal development d. Fetal Stage = 2 months – birth i. Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply ii. In 8 th and 9 th months, fetus is sensitive to outside sounds and responsive to light and touch.
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8. The newborn a. Very difficult to study i. Physiological monitoring : eye-tracking, heart rate, sucking rates, brain waves (EEG), body movements, skin conductance. ii.
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Psych chapter 4 notes - Psych chapter 4 notes 2nd test...

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