Psych Notes 1 - Introductory Material and History of...

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Introductory Material and History of Psychology Psychology: Defined The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Key Components of this definition: Science Behavior-actions/ways we respond Mental Processes-not something we can see but know everyone has What is science? Empirical Observation- direct observation of nature Empirical v. Rationalism Rationalism: idea that knowledge is innate don’t have to be educated to have knowledge of world Empirical: to have knowledge we must observe the world Theory: an integrated set of statements designed to account for predict and control natural phenomenon Hypotheses: specific testable proposition about a phenomenon Provides a description Must be testable (if not, not a science) Requires operational definitions Principle of falsifiability (Karl Popper) -hypothesis must be refutable -predictability Principle of parsimony- Ockhams razor -simplest explanation that retains ability to explain all data -replication: experiment must be able to be repeated Two General Views: View 1 (Dualism): Psychological (mental) processes have a physical/biological basis and are subject to the same rules of study as any other physical/biological process (e.g. ideas, dreams emotions) are not of physical world and therefore cannot be studied scientifically.
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View 2: (Monism) Psychological (mental) processes have a physical/biological basis and are subject to the same rules of study as any other physical /biological process Dualism v. Monism Dualist view (view 1): that there are two separate substances in the world: the physical and mental Philosophers: Plato, St. Augustine, Descrates Monist (view 2): there is no “separate mental” substance Philosophers:
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Psych Notes 1 - Introductory Material and History of...

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