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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7: Learning Continued Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Behavior: You put coins into a vending machine Presentation of pleasant or positive stimulus: You receive a cold can of soda Frequency of behavior increases: You put coins in vending machines in the future Negative Reinforcement Behavior : In the middle of a boring date you say you have a headache removal and unpleasant stimulus: The date ends early Frequency of behavior increases: You use the same tactic on future bring dates-positive/negative doesn’t mean good/bad it means something is given or taken away as a result Escape Conditioning vs. Avoidance Conditioning • Examples of negative reinforcement • Escape: learned response stops an aversive stimulus • Avoidance Conditioning: ? Punishment • Punishment: the presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior. o Results in decrease in the frequency of a response • Negative Reinforcement versus Punishment o Negative Reinforcement: strengthens behavior o Punishment: weakens behavior Two Kinds of Punishment Punishment 1 Behavior : You touch a hot iron Presentation of an unpleasant stimulus: your hand is burned frequency of behavior decreases: no longer touch hot irons Punishment 2 (penalty) Behavior: Careless with ice cream cone Removal of a pleasant stimulus ice cream falls to ground frequency of behavior decreases : you’re not as careless nest time Drawback of Punishment • Does not “erase” an undesirable habit, merely suppress it. Can produce unwanted side effects •...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course PSYCH 0010 taught by Professor Tokowitz during the Spring '09 term at Pittsburgh.
- Spring '09