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bi10 - Definitions and Terminology Microevolution Changes...

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Definitions and Terminology Microevolution Changes within populations or species in gene frequencies and distributions of traits Macroevolution Higher level changes, e.g. generation of new species or higher–level classification
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Gene Section of a chromosome that encodes the information to build a protein Location is known as a “locus”
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Allele Varieties of the information at a particular locus Every organism has two alleles (can be same or different) No limit to the number of alleles in a population
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Zygosity Homozygous: Two copies of the same allele at one locus Heterozygous: Two different alleles at one locus
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Genotype Genetic information contained at a locus Which alleles are actually present at a locus Example: Alleles available: R and W Possible genotypes: RR, RW, WW
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Phenotype Appearance of an organism Results from the underlying genotype
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Phenotype Example 1: Alleles R (red) and W (white), codominance Genotypes: RR, RW, WW Phenotypes: Red, Pink, White
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Phenotype Example 2: Alleles R (red) and w (white), simple dominance Genotypes: RR, Rw, ww Phenotypes: Red, Red, white
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Dominant and Recessive Alleles Dominant alleles: “Dominate” over other alleles Will be expressed, while a recessive allele is suppressed Recessive alleles: Alleles that are suppressed in the presence of a dominant allele
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Gene Pool The collection of available alleles in a population The distribution of these alleles across the population is not taken into account!
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Allele frequency The frequency of an allele in a population Example: 50 individuals = 100 alleles 25 R alleles = 25/100 = 25% R = 0.25 is the frequency of R 75 W alleles = 75/100 W = 75% W = 0.75 is the frequency of W
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