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Unformatted text preview: Genetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function The structure of DNA and RNA Genetic material of living organisms is either DNA or RNA. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid RNA – Ribonucleic acid Genes are lengths of DNA that code for particular proteins. AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function DNA and RNA are polynucleotides Both DNA and RNA are polynucleotides. They are made up of smaller molecules called nucleotides. Nucleotide DNA is made of two polynucleotide strands: Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide RNA is made of a single polynucleotide strand: Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Structure of a nucleotide A nucleotide is made of 3 components: A Pentose sugar This is a 5 carbon sugar The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. The sugar in RNA is ribose. AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Structure of a nucleotide A Phosphate group Phosphate groups are important because they link the sugar on one nucleotide onto the phosphate of the next nucleotide to make a polynucleotide. AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Structure of a nucleotide A Nitogenous base In DNA the four bases are: – – – – – – – – Thymine Adenine Cytosine Guanine Uracil Adenine Cytosine Guanine In RNA the four bases are: AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Nitrogenous bases – Two types Pyramidines Pyramidines Thymine ­ T Cytosine ­ C Uracil ­ U Purines Adenine ­ A Guanine ­ G AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Adenine AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Guanine AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Sugar phosphate bonds (backbone Sugar of DNA) of Nucleotides are connected to each other via the phosphate on one nucleotide and the sugar on the next nucleotide A Polynucleotide AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function James Watson (L) and Francis Crick (R), and the model James they built of the structure of DNA they AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function X-ray diffraction photograph of the X-ray DNA double helix AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Base pairing The Nitrogenous Bases pair up with other bases. For example the bases of one strand of DNA base pair with the bases on the opposite strand of the DNA. AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Adenine always base pairs with Thymine The Rule: (or Uracil if RNA) Cytosine always base pairs with Guanine. This is beacuse there is exactly enough room for one purine and one pyramide base between the two polynucleotide strands of DNA. AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Complementary base pairing Purines Adenine Adenine Guanine Pyramidines Thymine Uracil Cytosine AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Nature of the Genetic Material Property 1 ­ it must contain, in a stable form, information encoding the organism’s structure, function, development and reproduction Property 2 ­ it must replicate accurately so progeny cells have the same genetic makeup Property 3 ­ it must be capable of some variation (mutation) to permit evolution AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Speed of DNA replication: 3,000 nucleotides/min in human 30,000 nucleotides/min in E.coli E.coli Accuracy of DNA replication: Accuracy Very precise (1 error/1,000,000,000 nt) Very Replication of DNA and Replication Chromosomes Chromosomes AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Taylor and co-workers (1957) 3 after H-labelled chromosomes AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein one further replication AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function in unlabelled media Meselson and Stahl (1958) AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function A replicating Drosophila replicating Drosophila chromosome chromosome AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function Origins initiate replication at different times. AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein AS Biology. Gnetic control of protein structure and function ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course BSC 2010 taught by Professor Bowes during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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