test 1 study guide

test 1 study guide - LECTURE 1 Types of logical thinking o...

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LECTURE 1 Types of logical thinking o ABDUCTION they begin by collecting clues into a first suspicion or hypothesis you observe then speculate hypothesis o INDUCTION they summarize evidence Collect info first then create model after o DEDUCTION they generalize hypothesis and other implications Having hypothesis first and then verify it by collecting data Arguments relate to theory and data o To do theoretical work you need theory and data Theory offers premise Data can test and extend the premise Conclusions are new theory In terms of argument quality, what is the difference between two-group no pretest studies and one-shot case studies? o The second design (two group no-pretest experiment) is better than first (one shot case study) o For reasons that you find in a design book: comparison vs intuitive sense; control; comparable groups Arguing toward theory o Theory and data should be of high quality Theories quality o Truth, beauty and justice What are high quality data? o Authentic (reliable and valid) o Even recognizing the phenomena is not simple: OPERATIONALIZATION can be controversial (e.g. relational happiness —scale?, duration? Observer judgements?) o Investigator, interperative or distanced? (e.g. data from respondents point of view or quasi-objective) Good arguments may not be conclusive Argument as method- falsification o We try to falsify not verify o The more falsification efforts something survives, the more confidence we have in it CHAPTER 1 A MODEL is a simplified picture of a part of the real world; it has some characteristics of the real world, but not all of them o Set of interrelated guesses about the world; like pictures, a model is simpler than the phenomena it is supposed to represent/explain
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o It is natural to have several different models of the same thing, each of which considers a different aspects Necessary Skills for Model Building o An ability to ABSTRACT from reality to model. Problems in social science are complex and frequently personal. It is necessary to form abstract representations of a delicately intricate reality. o A facility at DERIVATION within an abstract model. Models become rich through their implications. It is necessary to devise models that yield significant derivations and to develop skills at producing meaningful implications. o
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test 1 study guide - LECTURE 1 Types of logical thinking o...

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