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Inspection - MEAT INSPECTION MEAT Protect Consumer...

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Unformatted text preview: MEAT INSPECTION MEAT Protect Consumer Assurance of Wholesomeness & Proper Assurance Wholesomeness beling beling Detect & Locate Communicable Diseases Minimize presence of foodborne pathogens meat & poultry Inspection vs. Grading Inspection Inspection Inspection 1. Wholesomeness 2. Mandatory 3. Paid by the government 3. Grading 1.Marketing tool based on palatability and yield 2. @ packers request 3. Paid by the packer Inspection vs. Grading Inspection What is the difference? Which is mandatory? The two are unrelated & should not be confused unrelated Meat Grading is a marketing tool Grading Meat Inspection eliminates unfit meat from the food Inspection supply supply Inspection is MANDATORY No cost to the packer/processor History of Meat Safety History Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 “The Jungle” by Upton Sinclair “Meat scraps were left in large piles Meat inside buildings that leaked… inside Workers would add poison to bread Workers and place the pieces on the meat piles in hopes of killing the rats… piles When the meat was needed for use, When the meat with the poisoned bread and dead rats were used as well” and Progression of Meat Inspection Progression 1906 Meat Inspection Act 1967 Wholesome Meat Act 1978 Humane Slaughter Act 2000 HACCP Hazard Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point inspection system inspection Current Laws Current All red meat and poultry MUST be inspected Only FEDERALLY inspected meat sold Interstate Exported Standards determined by USDA “Custom” slaughter is exempted Cost is borne by TAXPAYERS (excludes Cost overtime) overtime) FSIS FSIS Mission statement: The Food Safety Inspection The Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation’s commercial for supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged, as required by the Federal Meat packaged as Inspection Act, the Poultry products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act. Act, Personnel Personnel Federal Government budgets $905 Million/ year for inspection Federal: USDA -- Food Safety Inspection Service Federal: (FSIS) (FSIS) Hierarchical Structure: Inspector In Charge Line Inspector (Lay Inspectors) EIAO- Enforcement, Investigations, & Analysis Officer Food Inspection - FSIS Food Inspecting meat for last Inspecting 100 years 100 Majority of inspectors are Majority employed by USDA employed Approximately 7,500 About 1,300 veterinarians Some are state Some employees employees Purpose of Meat Inspection Purpose 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Insure wholesomeness product Insure wholesomeness control & restriction of condemned products control Enforce sanitation regulations Enforce sanitation construction of facilities & operational sanitation construction Approve formulations & procedures used Approve formulations processing & laboratory work processing Insure product is not adulterated Insure not Mandate truthful labeling Mandate labeling Application of stamp Application stamp Minimize Contamination (HACCP) 1) Physical, Chemical, Microbial Wholesomeness Wholesomeness Antemortem & Antemortem Postmortem Inspection Postmortem Antemortem •Visual inspection of all animals at rest & in motion •Normal vs. Abnormal •99.7% pass Wholesomeness cont’d Wholesomeness Postmortem •Most important •Detect & eliminate abnormalities •Conducted under the supervision of DVM All Carcasses Enforce Sanitary Regulations Enforce Facilities’ Construction Operational Sanitation Daily Pre-Operational Inspection -Building plans -Equipment -Sewage disposal -Refrigeration -Grounds -Ventilation -Water supply -Specifications for operation In general -- handling at all stages Approval of Formulations & Procedures Procedures Ingredients Procedures Finished product standards (re-inspection privilege) Labeling All formulations used in processing products are filed w/ the All FSIS & no deviations are permitted no Regulations are specific for any type of additive Prevention of Adulteration Prevention No meat product shall contain any No substance that would render it “adulterated” or not approved “adulterated” Examples of approved additives: Salt TVP, HVP NO2 Carrageenan H2O Soy proteins Inspection Stamp Inspection Carcass primal cuts Pre-packaged processed meat products (soups to salads) Fresh/frozen or processed poultry products Fresh/frozen or processed exotic meat products Grade stamp Inspection stamp Minimize Microbial Contamination Minimize Constant checking & testing of product Where? In-plant testing USDA Labs Independent Labs What? Ingredients Ingredients Levels Levels Microbial Microbial Residues Residues Food Safety Food 200 200 known diseases transmitted through food through 2005; estimated 2005; between 9 to 76 million food born illnesses illnesses Over 9,000 deaths HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) Critical Food-borne Outbreaks Food-borne Jack in the Box Hudson Foods & Topps Meat Spinach & Taco Bell produce Egg recall HACCP HACCP Is Preventative, not Re-Active Is a management tool designed to Is protect the food supply from bacterial, chemical, and physical hazards chemical, Not a ZERO TOLORANCE program Designed to minimize risks History of HACCP History Pillsbury Company NASA (National NASA Aeronautics and Space Administration) Last place to have a Last food born illness! food No food born illness No have occurred in space space HACCP Final Rule HACCP 1997 1997 HACCP HACCP HACCP GMP cannot stand alone Pre-requisite programs: (Good Manufacturing Practices) Broad Broad practices that cover the whole plant; inside and out inside SSOP SSOP A (Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures) Procedures) little more narrow Covers the general cleanliness of the plant, Covers equipment, and employees equipment, HACCP HACCP The The safety of manufacturing one specific product specific A Hazard is a bacterial, chemical, or Hazard physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury, if not controlled controlled Not to be confused with Quality Control Not or Quality Assurance HACCP HACCP 7 Principles of HACCP Conduct Hazard Analysis Determine Critical Control Points Establish Critical Limits Establish Monitoring Procedures Establish Corrective Actions Establish Verification Procedures Establish Record-Keeping & Documentation Establish Procedures Procedures Potential Contaminants of Concern to Public Health Officials and Consumers Public Antibiotics Pesticides Hormones Salmonella Listeria Campylobacter Mycobacterium (tuberculosis) (tuberculosis) Brucella Yersinia Escherichia coli (esp. 0157:H7) 0157:H7) Rotavirus Cryptosporidia Toxoplasma Arcanobacter Heavy metals eg. lead, Heavy mercury, calcium, arsenic mercury, Prions Public Health Veterinarian FSIS Public Farm-To-Table Meat FS FS and Poultry Plant Veterinarians advising on farms, transport, final prep and handling handling Humane slaughter oversight Carcass pathology lesions Veterinary Epidemiologist Collaborate Collaborate with CDC and local health departments for foodborne health hazards for Design inspection systems Evaluate programs to assess effectiveness in Evaluate ensuring safe food products ensuring Packing Segment Packing Large capacity Single species Process -Harvest -Chill -Grade -Fabricate -Package Slaughterhouses – Then & Now Slaughterhouses Historically Near in metropolitan areas Today in rural communities feedlots Food Safety Food Pathogens Poultry of Interest – Salmonella, Campylobacter Pork – Salmonella Trichina Beef – E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella RTE –Listeria Monocytogenes Salmonella Salmonella Leading cause of Leading foodborne illness worldwide. worldwide. Found in gut and feces Found of beef animal. of Not considered an Not adulterant by FSIS adulterant Symptoms- Flu-like E. coli O157:H7 O157:H7 Called the Called hamburger disease. hamburger 1994-considered 1994-considered adulterant adulterant STEC class of E. STEC coli. coli Organism resides in Organism fecal, dirt, gut, etc Susceptible Groups Susceptible Bloody diarrhea; Bloody hemolytic-uremic syndrome syndrome Halal­­ Lawful or Permitted All foods are considered Halal except: Pork and its by­products Animals improperly slaughtered or dead before slaughtering Animals killed in the name of anyone other than ALLAH Alcohol and intoxicants Carnivorous animals, birds of prey and land animals without external ears Slaughtering performed by a person Blood and blood by­products of the Islamic Faith Foods contaminated with any of the above products Inspection conducted by USDA ­ FSIS Kosher – Proper or Fit Of the "beasts of the earth" you may eat any animal that has cloven hooves and chews its cud. Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:6. Kosher Inspected by USDA –FSIS Inspectors Rabbi Only the meat from the forequarter Antemortem Inspection Antemortem Necessary day of slaughter USDA establishes slaughter plant Standards Responsibilities Responsibilities Sanitation Lighting Ante-mortem Inspection Inspection At-rest At-rest In-motion Muscle Muscle tremors or shivering shivering Head being held to Head one side one Abnormal gaits and Abnormal movements movements Live Receiving/Holding 38 Live Receiving/Holding 39 Live Receiving/Holding 40 Objectives of Antemortem Inspection Objectives Remove animals with neurologic signs Prevent slaughter of unwholesome conditions Prevent Certain tumors, emaciation Tuberculosis, sheep scabies, scrapie Cooperation with other governmental programs Inspectors and Veterinarians Inspectors Inspectors - day to day inspection before and after slaughter after Veterinarians - oversee inspectors Only veterinarians can condemn an animal Passed for regular slaughter Suspected Slaughter Not Slaughtered Suspected Condemned ­­Passed for regular slaughter ­­Suspected ­­Condemned Conditions Requiring a Veterinary Decision Decision Rectal or vaginal prolapse Broken limbs Newborn Edema Parturition Carcinoma and other tumors Actinomycosis and Actinomycosis actinobacillosis actinobacillosis Downer Cattle Downer Non-ambulatory Non-ambulatory can not be slaughtered in USDA-FSIS Inspected Facility (2008) USDA-FSIS Unwise decision? Disposal is a problem Unnecessary economic damages Conditions Resulting in the Inability to Rise to Foot lesions Septic arthritis Recent calving Recent (obturator nerve paralysis) (obturator Broken back/injury Septic mastitis Spinal abscess “Suspects” Certain conditionssuspect pen Closer Closer antemortem and postmortem inspections Regular pens Suspect pens Diseases Suspected Antemortem Diseases Rabies Listeriosis Scrapie BSE Postmortem Inspection Postmortem Predominantly organoleptic Remove abnormal tissue Determine if condition is generalized Determine (acute) or localized (chronic) (acute) Determine wholesomeness and consumer Determine safety safety Consider offensiveness Required Procedures Required Carcass Drug inspection injection sites Lymph nodes Required Procedures Required Masseter Masseter muscle incision- “Beef measles” incision Cysticercosis Larval Larval stage Taenia saginata saginata Affected Affected carcasses are condemned or passed for cooking for Required Procedures Required Head lymph node incision inspection Parotid, Parotid, mandibular, retropharyngeal (tonsils) retropharyngeal Viscera Mediastinal LNs – sliced Mesenteric LNs – observed Kidneys Systemic Changes of Toxemia/Septicemia Toxemia/Septicemia Hemorrhage Petechial of vital organs or ecchymoses Enlarged and edematous lymph nodes Degenerative changes of parenchymatous Degenerative organs, fat, and other body structures organs, Presence of areas of tissue necrosis or Presence generalized abscessation (pyemia) generalized Options for Disposal Options Pass for food Condemn all or part Pass with restriction Cooking Condemned Carcasses & Tissues Condemned Further inspected – tagged If condemned – inedible ink stamp Edible Tissues Edible Receive Receive stamp of approval approval Sanitary Practices 57 Evisceration 58 Carcass Splitting 59 Spinal Cord Removal 60 60 Spinal Cord Removal 61 61 Truthful Labeling Truthful Inspection controls the use of brands & labels applied Seven Essential Features Name of Product Name Each name represents a product for which there is a standard Each composition. The standard is either established by regulation or it may be developed by a study of consumer expectations for a particular product. particular Ingredient Statement Ingredient Products having more than one component must list the various Products ingredients in order of dominance. ingredients Labeling cont’d Labeling Identity of Manufacturer Identity Name, address and zip code of either the Name, manufacturer or the distributor must appear on the label. label. Net Weight Net Quantity of contents. Inspection Legend Inspection Nutrition Label Nutrition Report facts Safe Handling Instructions (if raw) (if Safe handling ? QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS? ...
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