an201%20handout%208%20agriculture - – llamas alpacas...

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Anthropology 201 Handout – Origins of Agriculture After the Ice Age (Holocene) - Southwest Asia – Natufian - Europe – Mesolithic - Americas – Archaic - Generalized adaptation - Composite tools - Broad Spectrum Adaptation (Broad Spectrum Revolution) = shift from Upper Paleolithic peoples’ specialization on big game hunting (of small number of species) to Archaic/Mesolithic/Natufian peoples’ increased diet breadth Origins of Agriculture Centers of Domestication Southwest Asia wheat, barley, peas, rye, lentils cows, sheep, goat, pigs North Central China – Yellow River millet chickens, pigs Southern China/Southeast Asia rice, soy chickens, pigs West, Central Africa teff, coffee, sorghum, millet, rice (different species than Asian rice and millet) possibly cattle Eastern North America sunflower, goosefot (chenopod), squash, bottle gourd Mexico maize, beans, squash, bottle gourds dog (independently in several places – Europe too), turkey Peru potatoes, quinoa, tomatoes, cotton (independently in several places – also Indus Valley)
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Unformatted text preview: – llamas, alpacas, guinea pig Early Theories-Lewis Henry Morgan, Ancient Society o savagery o barbarism o civilization-V. Gordon Childe o Neolithic Revolution-PROGRESS o affluence (Marshall Sahlins: hunter gatherers were the “original affluent society” o health Consequences of Agriculture-Population growth-Health costs-Roots of social inequality Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia-Agricultural “revolution”? Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran-bladelets-Ohalo Natufian-Younger Dryas Early Neolithic-Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (12,000-10,800 B.P.)-Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (10,800-8.500 B.P.) o emmer/einkorn wheat, barley o lentils, peas o chick peas, bitter vetch Late Neolithic (8500 – 7000 BP) Pottery-Ceramics o Clay, temper, water o Temporal marker (diagnostic) o Potsherd (sherd) Domestication in Europe-Lepinski Vir-Linear Band Keramik (LBK)...
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an201%20handout%208%20agriculture - – llamas alpacas...

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