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Solutions Manual, Chapter 7 201 7 MEASURING AND REPORTING INVENTORIES ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. An accurate valuation of ending inventory is needed to report the proper net income for the period. Ending inventory is deducted from cost of goods available for sale to yield cost of goods sold. 2. An understated ending inventory overstates the cost of goods sold. Cost of goods sold is, in turn, subtracted from sales, and this causes an equal understatement of net income for the period. 3. The ending inventory of one period is the beginning inventory of the next period. Thus, one inventory error affects two accounting periods. 4. To “take a physical inventory count” means that one determines the actual physical quantities of goods on hand by counting, weighing, measuring, and so on. These quantities are then multiplied by unit costs to obtain the total cost of the inventory on hand. 5. Despite the fact that taking a physical inventory count is not specifically an accounting function, the accountant is very involved in this important event. Because of the importance of inventory in measuring periodic income, the accountant must be assured that the inventory count is accurate. For this reason, the accountant frequently plans and coordinates the actual taking of the physical inventory count. 6. The cost of inventory is the total outlay necessary to obtain the goods and place them in a desired condition and location for sale. In theory, this cost includes gross selling price less cash discount plus transportation-in, insurance, and handling costs. The indirect costs would have to be allocated to inventory under some method that is arbitrary. Thus, these costs are often not included in the cost of inventory. 7. The accounts that are not used under perpetual inventory procedure are Purchases, Purchase Discounts, Purchase Returns and Allowances, and Transportation-In. The Merchandise Inventory account is debited or credited instead of debiting or crediting these accounts. 8. Two entries are necessary. First, debit Accounts Receivable and credit Sales at the selling price. Then, debit Cost of Goods Sold and credit Merchandise Inventory at cost. 9. Under perpetual procedure, the accountant can compare the results of the physical inventory count with the balance in the Merchandise Inventory account to determine any inventory shortages. Under periodic procedure, this same comparison cannot be made. 10. The development of computerized accounting software packages makes it much easier to track units and dollars in and out of the company as is required under perpetual inventory procedure. The additional control over inventory under perpetual inventory procedure also is appealing. 11. The cost flow assumption relates to the order in which the costs of goods are assumed to flow through a firm. The physical flow of goods is the order in which actual units of inventory are moved through a firm. In prior years, the theoretical merit of an inventory
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course ACCT 2101 taught by Professor Turner during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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