Lecture21_EAS1600_Fall08

Lecture21_EAS1600_Fall08 - EAS 1600 Introduction to...

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In this class we will discuss some chemistry basics – atomic number, atomic mass, etc. as well as these topics Inorganic vs. Organic Classes of Organic Molecules Oxidation and Reduction Acids and Bases pH and Equilibrium Carbonate system •B u f f e r s LeChatelier’s Principle EAS 1600 Introduction to Environmental Sciences ____________________________ Lecture 21- Chemistry Intro. and Review
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Periodic Table
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Carbon Molecules • Carbon is tetravalent i.e. it forms four bonds. • Simplest example is methane = CH 4 • Methane is an alkane or saturated hydrocarbon • Most molecules made of mainly C,H,O are considered to be organic
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Some Organic Molecules • Alcohols • Ketones, Aldehydes •A c i d s
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Inorganic Molecules • Sulfur Dioxide – SO 2 • Calcium Carbonate – CaCO 3 (calcite) • Carbonic Acid – H 2 CO 3 Dissolves in solution as HCO 3 - (aq) and CO 3 - (aq) we will talk a lot about organic and inorganic carbon For this class Inorganic carbon = CO 2 , H 2 CO 3 , HCO 3 - , CO 3 -2 , CaCO 3
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Important Biological Molecules • Lipids or Fats –CH 3 (CH 2 ) n C(O)OH – Fatty acids – make up cell walls etc. • Carbohydrates –H - [CHOH ] n -CHO (alcohol and carbonyl groups) = sugars or saccharides – Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) – energy source – Form polymers i.e. (H-[CHOH] n -CHO)n •P r o t e i n s – Important in muscle fibers etc. Most enzymes = protein – Made of chain of amino acids – Simplest amino acid = glysine = NH 2 -CH 2 -COOH –NH 2 or amino group is major nitrogen compound in organisms
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Oxidation Number If an atom undergoes a reaction that increases its oxidation number it is said to be oxidized Three Basic Rules to determine oxidation number of most atoms 1) The oxidation numbers of a neutral molecule must add up to zero; in an ion must add up to charge of ion 2) Hydrogen is always given an oxidation number of +1 3) Oxygen is always given an oxidation number of -2
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Oxidation Number Example
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Lecture21_EAS1600_Fall08 - EAS 1600 Introduction to...

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