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Lecture 4-West Africa Savanna Empires--Pre-European Contact

Lecture 4-West Africa Savanna Empires--Pre-European Contact...

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Unformatted text preview: The Impact of Commerce The Indian Ocean Trade and the East African Coast The Rise of the Swahili Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe Key Connector: ISLAM In Africa Islam entered Africa shortly after its inception in the Islam 7th century CE. After the death of Muhammad, in 632 CE, the first After caliph ("deputy of the prophet") of Islam, Abu Bakr, Bakr, undertook a series of military conquests to spread the new faith across the world. Although he died two years later, his nephew, Although Umar, continued the program. Umar, In 636 CE, Muslims occupied Jerusalem, Damascus, and In Antioch; In 651 CE, they had conquered all of Persia. In The Commercial Revolution Would Also Impact Other Parts of Africa, Especially… The Empires of West Africa But they also moved west into Africa. But In 646 CE, the Muslims conquered Egypt and quickly In spread across northern Africa. From northern Africa, they invaded Spain in 711 CE. The Expansion of Islam The The Islamic Expansions Will Encounter Several Empires in the Western Sudan Boundaries of three Western Sudan savanna empires at their height: 1. Wagadu (Ghana), circa 11th century Maghrib Maghrib 2. Mali, circa 14th century 3. Songhay, mms://media.scctv.net/annenberg/bridging_world_history_07.wmv 17:30 – 24:30 circa 16th century Early West Africa in World Context 200 BCE First States of West Africa’s Savanna: Takrur and Wagadu* (Ghana) Although little is known about their early Although periods, a number of centralized kingdoms coalesced from the various loosely united clans of the region. The most important of these were the states The of Takrur and Wagadu*; both start rising to prominence around 300-500 CE. * Wagadu is ruled by the “Ghana,” thus Arabic Ghana,” historians come to refer to it as the “Empire of the Ghana,” or, more simply, Ghana. Ghana,” Earliest Recorded West African States Earliest Agriculture & the Rise of Wagadu Wagadu’s core settlements were located in a mixture of grasslands and forests… rice became a key crop. Wagadu: The Camel Caravans Wagadu was well placed to take advantage Wagadu of trade because they controlled access to key gold fields especially after 500 CE. Camel caravans crossing the Sahara brought Camel goods such as copper and dried fruit, as well as salt that was mined at Taghaza. The caravans also brought clothing and other The manufactured goods, to be exchanged. The Ghana king came to be known as KayaThe Kaya Maghan, lord of gold. lord Wagadu (Ghana), 1000 CE Maghrib mms://media.scctv.net/annenberg/bridging_world_history_09.wmv 10:29 - 16:50 Wagadu & the Gold of Wangara The location of the Wangaran gold mines at The Bambuk on the headwaters of the Senegal river was a well guarded secret. “Dumb bartering” method to trade for gold: Trade goods were left at a designated spot by Trade merchants. Salt was one very popular commodity. The miners would then come out and lay down an The amount of gold dust. They, too, departed. Some time later the merchants would return, and, Some if the amount of gold dust was acceptable, they took it and left. Wagadu’s Political Hegemony By 990 CE Wagadu dominated key By competitors like the neighboring trade-city of Awdaghost, which it made into a tributary client, and they also reduced the kingdom of Takrur to a tributary state. The lucrative nature of trade and the The routes Wagadu controlled, however, led to more and more conflicts in the region, and after the late eleventh century Wagadu finds itself pressured on all sides. The Maghrib The The Maghrib is the area in North Africa now The occupied by Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. It underwent significant changes from the 7th It century CE as Arab expansion brings Islam into the area. At first the local peoples, the Berbers, join the Arab At military and adopt Islam for reasons of political/economic advantage. However by the 8th century, Berbers were ready to adopt However Islam as well as Arabic culture. Islam and the Empire of Ghana Initially Islam sat side by side with African Initially traditional religions. The King of the Wagadu in the 11th The century was essentially a traditionalist, but that did not stop him employing Muslim scribes and administrators in his government. The Muslims, for their part, did not try and The convert the King and his people. A second town for Muslims was set up second close-by to Kumbi Saleh. The Arab conquest of the Maghrib facilitates an The influx of Muslim merchants who became involved in the trans-Saharan gold trade with the Great transKingdoms of West Africa. Traditional African Religion God First Cause-Creator At the apex of the Niger-Congo system was the distant figure of God who was of little direct consequence in everyday religion. Islam and the Empire of Wagadu (Ghana) Islam Territorial Spirits The Ancestors THE LIVING Doctor-Diviners Those with Knowledge to Interpret and Understand the Otherworld Kings/Chiefs (Those who “know”) The Ordinary People The World Trade competition with the Almoravid Empire Trade challenged Ghana after 1000 CE. Neighboring kingdoms like Takrur convert to Islam. Neighboring In 1020 CE, the city-state of Gao accepts Islam. In city- Wagadu and the Almoravid Empire (1100 CE) Wagadu’s Waning Influence In 1054-55, Muslim Berbers raid and capture In 1054Awdaghost but then withdraw. However, there is a decisive shifting of control However, of desert trade over to the Almoravids and in the 11th and 12th centuries the Bure goldfields were opened up in the woodland savanna to the south. At the same time new trans-Saharan routes At transwere developed that gave the southern tributary chiefdoms the chance to assert their independence. After Ghana, Several Smaller Kingdoms After Fought Over Its Former Territory Until… The Mali Empire Oral tradition records that a powerful leader, named Oral Sundiata, unified the Mali Empire, and that the Sundiata, empire grew rich and powerful from trade conducted across the vast expanse of the Sahara desert. Mali's key urban centers were Timbuktu, Gao, and Mali's Gao, Jenne Jao. Jao. The key to Mali's success was its effective military The force — paid for with wealth gained by the transtransSaharan trade and with tribute won from neighboring conquered states. In return for tribute, Mali's military offered protection In from thievery and banditry — which further encouraged trade to flourish in the region. mms://media.scctv.net/annenberg/bridging_world_history_11.wmv 12:17 – 17:00 Mali at Its Greatest Extent Economy of the Mali Empire Mali's gold was important all over the world. In the later Medieval period, West Africa may have been producing almost twothirds of the world's supply of gold! mms://media.scctv.net/annenberg/bridging_world_history_11.wmv 12:17 – 17:00 Mansa Musa of Mali Mansa Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage The Mali Empire’s wealth is shown by The Mansa Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324. His reportedly had along thousands of His soldiers, officials and attendants; 100 camels each carrying 300 pounds of gold; and 500 maids and slaves to serve Mansa Musa's senior wife. Once in Egypt, Mansa Musa paid homage Once to the sultan with gifts of gold. He distributed so much gold that its value He was decreased by 10 to 25 percent! • The greatest and most famous of all of Mali's kings was Mansa Musa, who ruled from 1307 to his death in 1332. • His capital was the city of Niani. He expanded Mali's borders to include the cities of Timbuktu, Djenne and Gao. Mansa Musa and Timbuktu Mansa Timbuktu was at the end of camel caravan routes Timbuktu that linked sub-Saharan Africa to North Africa. subIt began as a trading city, but in time developed into It the intellectual and spiritual center of West Africa. On the return from his pilgrimage Mansa Musa built On a great mosque, or Islamic temple, in Timbuktu. The mosque attracted scholars from as far away The as Saudi Arabia. Timbuktu began its decline in influence when the Timbuktu Portuguese showed that it was easier to sail around the coast of Africa than travel through the desert. Timbuktu – Center of Trade & Learning Timbuktu European Ideas About Mali European Ideas About Mali Facsimile of a Facsimile map drawn in Spain and dated to 1375, showing the king (mansa) of Mali holding a gold nugget. Islamic Reports of Mail: The Travels of Ibn Battuta The Muslim traveler Ibn Battuta The journeyed to Mali, West Africa (1351 - 1353). He described the main city… He city… The main palace was built by a The Muslim architect from Andalusia (Muslim Spain) and was covered with plaster painted with colorful patterns, a "most elegant" building. Surrounding the palaces and Surrounding mosques were the residences of the citizens: mud-walled houses mudroofed with domes of timber and reed. The Rise of the Songhai Empire After Mansa Musa of Mali died, ineffectual After heirs and palace infighting weakened Mali. Songhai began to acquire territories Songhai formerly under the control of Mali. It was during the reign of Sunni Ali (1464It 1492) that imperial expansion took its most dramatic form. During this time, Sunni Ali captured During Timbuktu and brought the entire Niger country under Songhai control. The Songhai Empire Dynasties of Songhay’s Empire Two dynasties ruled over the course of Songhay history: The first was the Sunni dynasty, with Sunni Ali The Ber (1464-92) as its most aggressive monarch. (1464Most of his 28-year reign was spent in military 28campaigns. Upon Sunni Ali’s death in 1492, the throne was Upon Ali’ usurped by Askia Muhammad Toure (in 1493) who founded the Askia Dynasty. Muhammud expanded and stabilized Songhay, Muhammud Songhay, and sought to placate Muslim factions. End of Askia Dynasty/Decline of Songhay End Askia Muhammed Toure, now old and ailing, Askia was deposed by his son Musa in 1528. Musa was in turn assassinated in 1531, and Musa three relatively weak kings, two of them sons of Toure, ruled for the next eighteen years. Finally another son of Toure, Daoud, took Finally charge, and he gave Songhay a reign that was long and stable (1549-82). Tensions Within the Empire Tensions However, by the late 1500s, Songhai was in trouble. However, The arrival of Europeans on the West African coast The meant that gold could be transported by sea, instead of by land, so cities like Timbuktu and Jenné saw Jenné their income drop dramatically. Second, there was the growing European appetite Second, for slaves. At first, Songhai simply sold its least desirable folks-At folks-criminals and prisoners of war--but Europe still wanted war--but more, so European traders began paying both the Songhai and the Berbers to raid and enslave their rivals. This would put a strain on Songhai's population and This cause a rift within the community. The End of Songhai’s Empire When Daoud's reign ended, many subject When peoples rose up in revolt, more than what Songhay's 35,000 soldiers could keep in submission. Though nearly as large as ever, the empire Though was but a shadow of its former self, and a small push probably could have toppled it. What it got instead was a big push, in the What form of a trans-Saharan invasion from Morocco in 1590-1591. Songhai’s Invasion by Moroccans Morocco’s sultan wanted West African gold, so in Morocco’ 1590, he sent an army of 3000 men south across the Sahara Desert. The weapons of the Songhai warriors were no The match for the cannons and muskets of the Moroccan army, but the fighting continued long after the Songhai government fell. After ten years, the Sultan lost interest and After abandoned his army in Songhai, leaving the Moroccan soldiers to be either killed or absorbed into the local population. The invasion destroyed Songhai, and with it the The trade routes that had brought prosperity to the region for hundreds of years. The Aftermath of Songhai’s Fall The Just when larger centralized kingdoms were Just emerging in Europe, West African retreated into smaller states. By the time Europeans reach the Atlantic By coast of Africa, most Africans resided in states no larger than Switzerland or Denmark. Conflicts among these small states would Conflicts enable European slave traders to gain a foothold in the region by persuading local leaders to send out warrior parties to capture “enemies” who would become slaves. The Forest Kingdoms The Forest Kingdoms South of Songhai, Yoruba and Edo-speaking peoples established forest kingdoms such as Ife and Benin. Productive agriculture and knowledge of ironworking made them prosperous and eager to trade. The Portuguese who arrived in 1485 found highly organized societies with absolute monarchs and a people eager to trade for the news goods offered by the Europeans. Some Major Forest Kingdoms of the West African Iron Age NOK cult Area ural (500 BCE ) Shared Ways of Life The Africans who would be taken out of West The Africa came from societies and languages that varied greatly. However, most shared certain ways of life However, would allow for them to connect and communicate. Knowing this helps us to understand how Knowing enslaved Africans in the Americas refashioned themselves and built defenses against the cruelties inflicted on them. West African Society and Culture (On the Eve of European Contact) DAH O MEY West African Social Structures: Family and Community UPPER GUINEA LOWER GUINEA ANGOLA COAST Most families lived in villages, though by the late Most 1200s, cities of many thousands dotted the continent. Each person felt linked to others, defined by Each relations. "Alone, a person was nobody.“ nobody.“ Africans emphasized interdependence rather than Africans individualism. Unlike Europe, kinship systems in Africa at this point Unlike were largely matrilineal, a tradition that carried over into slavery, as African women continued to have influence in their families in ways not typical of European families. The Unseen World African religions generally recognized a African supreme being or creator, as well as a pantheon of lesser gods associated with nature. Elaborate rituals showed respect for spirits in Elaborate nature and for ancestors, as both were capable of intervening in human affairs. West Africans also believed in spirit West possession--gods speaking to men and women through religious leaders and natural forces and objects. Traditional African Religion God First Cause-Creator At the apex of the Niger-Congo system was the distant figure of God who was of little direct consequence in everyday religion. Territorial Spirits The Ancestors THE LIVING Doctor-Diviners Those with Knowledge to Interpret and Understand the Otherworld Kings/Chiefs (Those who “know”) The Ordinary People The World Political Organization (Centralized States: E.g. Yoruba City States) African states were much like European societies in political organization overseeing a bureaucracy that handled taxes and commerce : a king supported by landowning nobles, military leaders, and priests. Political Organization (Non-Centralized States: E.g. The Igbo) • The Igbo speaking people live in the south eastern part of contemporary Nigeria. • They lived in politically autonomous villages. • That is, each village was politically separate and was not politically connected to neighboring villages. Under them were artisans and traders, and the great mass of people who tilled the soil. African societies also had slaves, largely captured enemies who worked as domestic servants and artisans. • Within the villages there was not a system of hereditary chiefs. • Village decisions were made by a headman and a council of elders that selected the headman. Political Organization (Non-Centralized States: E.g. The Igbo) Aesthetic Expression: Dance & music Dance and music were intrinsic to communal religious observances and festivals. They enabled Africans to celebrate life together; music was not performed by individuals for an audience, as in Europe, nor were compositions attributed to a single creator. Instead, Africans improvised, and their music unfolded with antiphony, syncopation, and a percussive style in which drums played an essential role. Igboland: Other Social Institutions In addition to village based council of elders, there were religious organizations, structures of kinship ties—lineage groups, and secret societies, that provided regulations which governed people's lives. These organizations guaranteed that no one group or institutions gained too much power—a system of checks and balances! Aesthetic Expression: Art In art Africans created beautiful objects with real functions, not paintings of scenes or individuals to be admired, although carvings of kings' likenesses commemorated royal power. West and Central African sculptures and carvings testify to the skills of African artisans, and their delicately carved ivories were much sought after by early European traders. Video clip… 1:58 ...
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