Breeding%20and%20Genetics%20F10

Breeding%20and%20Genetics%20F10 - Breeding & Genetics...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style ANSC 102 Department of Animal Sciences Purdue University
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Genetic Principals The “father of genetics” Gregor Mendel (1822- 1884). Simple genetic crosses using pea plants. DNA was discovered in the mid - 1900’s. Today much of the genetic gains have been through the use of molecular biology.
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Genetic Terms Genome : Entire genetic material for an organism DNA : Deoxyribonucleic acid, alphabet for all genetic code Chromosome : Discrete units of organized DNA inside nucleus Gene : units of DNA that are transcribed on a chromosome, smallest unit of inheritance Allele : alternate form of the same gene Diploid : having two copies of genetic material (pairs of chromosomes, alleles, etc) Haploid : one copy of genetic material (gametes) Gamete : the oocyte or sperm cell (haploid DNA)
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More Genetic Terms Dominance : an allele that masks the expression of other alleles Recessive : an allele that is masked by other more dominant alleles , only expressed when homozygous Partial dominance : an allele or gene that is not completely dominant over others; typically an intermediate phenotype
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Simple Definition: selecting sires and dams, assigning them to matings, and producing offspring . Successful Definition: consistently producing animals that are desired by the market place at a cost lower than their competition . Animal Breeding consists of two tasks: Selection of animals to be parents Setting up a mating system What is Animal Breeding?
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Animal Improvement is decision making . To make effective decisions you must have knowledge of: The current situation, your goals, opportunities and costs, personal preferences (what makes you happy).
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Choosing a Mating System-- Goals Gene Purity: homozygous genes may be wanted for predictable offspring Heterosis: (Hybrid Vigor) most influenced by cross breeding programs and maximizes expression of dominant (and usually superior) genes.
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Breeding Methods Inbreeding Out Breeding Random Mating Cross Breeding
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Genetic Purity: homozygous genes may be wanted for consistency (Inbreeding or Line Breeding) Genetic Diversity: many need some hybrid vigor in the offspring within the same breed/strain (Out Breeding) Low Maintenance: Wild population or pasture
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Breeding%20and%20Genetics%20F10 - Breeding & Genetics...

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