damron - introduction to {the Animal Seiemees LEARNING...

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Unformatted text preview: introduction to {the Animal Seiemees LEARNING OBJECTIVES After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define animal science and all of its component parts. 2. Describe how, why, and when domestication occurred. 3- Give an overview of the distribution of agricultural animals worldwide. 4. Explain to a nonagriculturist the contributions of dOmeStic animals to humankind . and stale why domestic animals are so important to life as we know it. 5- Describe the worldwide livestock revolution and its implications. , KEY TERMS i i Agriculture Dairy product science Hunter-gatherer Animal behavior Diet Livestock revolution Animal breeding Domestic animals Meat Animal health Draft animal Meat science Animal science Essential amino acids Nutrient density Applied ethology Ethology Nutrition ‘ Biofuel Farmer Omnivore Biometry Genetic code Physiology Biotechnology Genetics Renewable resources Civilization Green revolution Culture Heredity INTRODUCTION Animals. We live with them, worship them, consume them, admire them, fear them, love them, care for them, and depend on them. They are part of our sustenance, our so- ciologY, and our day-to-day lives. Because they are so important to us, we also study — "‘“ f .’ t o ‘ Animal science The combination of disciplines that together comprise the study of domestic animals. Agriculture The combination of science and art used to cultivate and grow crops and livestock and process the products. Domestic animals Those species that have been brought under human control and that have adapted to life with humans. Culture in this context, culture refers to the set of occupational activities, economic structures, beliefsivalues, social forms, and material traits that define our actions and activities. Hunter-gatherer Hunter-gatherer peoples support their needs by hunting game, fishing, and gathering edible and medicinal plants. FIGURE 1-1 permission.) Bolivian farmers cultivating pota— toes on old Inca terraces. They use the same tools as those used by their ancestors. (FAO photo 22399/Roberto Faidutti. Used with Part One/The Placeof . them and apply what we learn to improve their lives and their roles in our lives. The branch of science that deals with domestic animals is called animal science, which is the topic of this book. Much of our use for animals revolves around their contributions to our food sup— ply. Food comes from the land. To coax a more stable food supply from the land, hu- mans have developed a complicated resource management system called agriculture. In agriculture. domestic plants and animals are kept to produce for humankind’s needs. Humans have practiced agriculture for thousands of years and, either directly or indi- rectly, every person on the planet depends on agriculture for his or her daily food (Figure 1—1). Because that is true, it is also ultimately true that all of humankind’s other occupations are tied to agriculture. This is especially true in the developed countries of the world. In fact, the entire urban industrial complex of the developed world is sus- tained only because of food surpluses generated by agriculturists. Humans have found many other uses for domestic animals in such areas as sports, recreation, manufactur- ing, religion, and as companions. Add these uses to food production and we discover that animals are at the core of virtually all of our lives, whether or not we are aware of it. Because agriculture and its animals are such an integral part of our existence, they have become a dominating part of our culture, our influence on the landscape. and, ei~ ther directly or indirectly. our daywto-day activities. Exactly when the individual animal species were domesticated is unknown. DNA sequencing technology suggests that the dog may have been domesticated from the wolf as long as 135,000 years ago, but archaeological evidence suggests that the dog was domesticated about 14,000 years ago (12000 B.C.). The earliest domestic food species (as most Westerners currently dene it) was the sheep (somewhere around 8000 13.0), followed closely by goats, hogs, and cattle (6500 B.C.), llama (5500 3.0), horses (3500 B.C.), donkeys (4000 B.C.), and chickens (6000 B.C.). Humans” dependence on the animals they tamed and then domesticated was not planned. Hunter-gatherers (who first domesticated animals) used the meat. bones. and skins just as they had done before domestication. The only difference after domestica- tion was convenience. The additional uses (milk, clothing. power. war, sport, and pres- tige) came later. This happened after humans had lived in the company of animals for a long time in a more sedentary lifestyle. Humans had hunted and consumed animals pte‘r' lllntroduction to the Animal Sciences for 2 million years before domesticating them. The behavioral change required for hunters and gatherers to become farmers was a major cultural revolution. In fact, ani- mal domestication represented a major step toward what we call civilization. With the acquisition of domestic animals came the need to ultimately manage them, care for them, and learn to use them to our best advantage. Those needs caused the develop- ment of the discipline of study that we call animal science. ANIMAL SCIENCE SPECIALTIES Animal science is simply the collective study of domestic animals. This includes every aspect from conception to death, behavior to management, physiology [0 nutrition, and reproduction to product distribution. Animal science represents an accumulation of knowledge that began with observations of those hunter-gatherers who began the process of domestication long ago. As animal scientists have learned more and more about animals, the accumulated wealth of information has become too large for anyone to comprehend completely. Out of necessity, its study is divided into disciplines, or spe- cialties, as a means of creating manageable pieces. These specialties may be broken down several ways, but the following categories illustrate the point: I Genetics is the science of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics. Animal breeding is the use of biometry and genetics to improve farm animal production. Genetics is an expanding field due largely to steady progress in deciphering the genetic code. I Nutrition is the study of how organisms take in and use food/feed for body needs. Whether or not animals develop their genetic potential depends on their environment. The most important environmental factor is feed. Nutrition is the science that combines feeds with feeding management to bring about the economical production of livestock and/or health and long life to animal companions. I Physiology is the study of the mechanisms of life from the single biochemical reactions in cells to the coordinated total of specialized cells that constitute a living animal. Because physiology is complex, we usually break down the study to the workings of physiological systems. Examples include reproductive physiology, renal physiology, and exercise physiology. I Animal health is the study of how diseases, parasites, and environmental factors affect productivity and animal welfare. Disease is defined as any state other than a state of health. Once animals were domesticated, diseases and parasites began taking their toll. I Ethology is the study of the biology of animal behavior. The specific study of behavior in domestic animals is applied ethology. This discipline developed along with the livestock industry‘s increased dependence on confinement rearing systems. which provide greater control over animals, reduce labor and feed costs, and help maximize genetic potential. They also present problems associated with behavior. Applied ethology includes many aspects of animal behavior, including animal welfare assessment, optimizing production, behavioral control, behavioral disorders, and behavioral genetics. I Meat science deals with the handling, distribution, and marketing of finished meat products. Meat is defined as the edible flesh of animals that is used for food. Meat Farmer Anyone who practices agriculture by managing and cultivating livestock and/or crops. Civilization In modern context this refers to what we consider a fairly high level of cultural and technological development. Genetics The science of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics. Heredity The transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to offspring. Animal breeding The use of biometry and genetics to improve farm animal production. Biometry The application of statistics to topics in biology. Genetic code The set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. Nutrition The study of nutrients and how the body uses them. Physiology The study of the physical and chemical processes of an animal or any of the body systems or cells of the animal. Animal health The study and practice of maintaining animals as near to a constant state of health as is possible and feasible. Ethology The study of animals in their natural surroundings. Applied ethology The study of behavior in domestic animals. Meat science The science of handling, distributing, and marketing meat and meat products. Meat The flesh of animals used for food. Dairy product science The science of providing milk and milk products as food. Biotechnology A collective set of tools and applications of living organisms, or parts of organisms, to make or modify products, improve plants or animals, or develop microorganisms for specific uses. Renewable resources Those resources that can be replaced or produced by natural ecological cycles or management systems. Omnivore An animal that eats both animal- and plant-based feeds. “by-products” are all of the products other than the carcass meat, some of which are edible and some of which are not. I Dairy product science deals with the collection, handling, and marketing of milk in its many forms to the consuming public. I Biotechnology involves technological applications of biology. This discipline has received new attention in animal science because of recombinant DNA technology and its many promises. Each of the other disciplines of animal science has benefited from biotechnology and will continue to do so at an ever-increasing rate. Obviously tremendous overlap occurs in these areas, and separations are made for our convenience. However, this convenience can also be a hindrance By breaking the discipline of animal science down into smaller units, we have made it easier to learn but harder to grasp—we know the pieces of the puzzle better, but it is harder to put the pieces together. Always remember that it is the combination of the specialties that con“ stitutes the whole discipline we call animal science. ANIMAL DISTRIBUTION There are approximately 4.4 billion large farm animals and 17.6 billion poultry distrib- uted throughout the world (Table 1—1). The number of large farm animals has been in— creasing at a very modest rate for nearly three decades. However. there have been, and continue to be, shifts in the size of individual species populations. Poultry numbers have increased fairly consistently and at a more rapid rate. Until just very recently, greater than two thirds of the large farm animals were found in developing countries, but they produced only about a third each of the meat, milk. and wool produced in the world. Reasons for the low productivity include environmental stresses, disease chal- lenges, lack of access to technology, and different objectives of livestock production. However, the world agricultural order is undergoing profound changes, which are caus- ing a greater percentage of the world‘s livestock to be found in the developing world. In addition, the productivity of the livestock in the developing world is improving. Agricultural animals have made a major contribution to the welfare of human so— cieties for millennia by providing a variety of products and services, as shown in Table 1—2. They are a renewable resource, and they utilize another renewable resourceiplantsito produce these products and services. CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANIMALS TO HUMANITY A detailed look at animal use comes later in this book. This section briefly surveys some of the many contributions of livestock and other animals to humans. Fooo SOURCE Humans are omnivores, consuming both plant— and animal-based foods. Figure l—2 shows the contributions of different food sources to the world food supply. Although food is the most important contribution of agricultural animals to humans, plants sup- ply a greater total quantity of food. Plants supply 82.9% of the total food energy cons sumed by the world’s people, primarily because such a high percentage of the human 77116119711401.1011 to the Animal Sciences TABLE 1-1 Agricultural Animal Numbers in the World North and South Central World Total America America Oceania Africa Europe Asia LARGE FARM ANIMALS Cattle (Head)1 1 ,357,943,210 334,289,953 162,064,719 37,417,161 238,450,131 136,499,674 449,221,573 Sheep (Head) 1,049,279,277 69,662,736 17,266,488 139,726,740 252,620,097 137,387,703 432,615,514 Pigs (Head) 942,637,353 50,923,009 94,541,139 5,417,650 22,500,949 194,996,122 574,258,486 Goats (Head) 780,755,333 21,111,397 15,528,529 879,180 230,477,516 18,293,619 494,465,092 Buffalos (Head) 171,105,572 1,141,611 5,675 65 3,811,025 ' 284,151 165,863,045 Horses (Head) 54,967,628 15,650,311 14,243,071 378,513 3,678,604 6,476,644 14,540,485 Asses (Head) 41,181,019 4,056,217 3,770,126 9,000 14,498,580 752,818 18,094,278 Camels (Head) 19,090,610 15,604,644 12,000 3,473,966 Mules (Head) 12,748,369 2,783,554 3,767,630 1,023,107 239,598 4,934,481 Other Camelids (Head)? 6,290,000 6,290,000 Total 4,435,998,370 505,908,787 311,187,376 183,828,309 782,664,652 494,942,328 2,157,466,919 RDDENTS Rabbits (Head) 519,144 3,498 1,405 12,497 116,513 385,231 Other Flodents (1 ,000 Head)3 16,325 16,325 POULTRY Chickens (1 1000 Head) 16,094,406 1,741,090 2,767,610 113,636 1,342,868 1,817,573 8,311,631 Ducks (1,000 Head) 1,017,860 7,375 16,481 915 16,360 65,528 911,203 Geese (1,000 Head) 277,176 333 340 69 12,282 14,947 249,206 Turkeys (1 .000 Head) 273,848 42,552 98,056 1,676 9,220 109,007 13,338 Total (1 ,000 Head) 17,663,291 1,791,349 2,882,486 116,295 1,380,730 2,007,054 9,485,377 INSECTS Beehives (Number) 61,499,656 5,089,400 5,627,756 706,756 15,473,305 15,924,848 18,677,592 Silkworm 317,754 9,787 166 1,250 306,551 Cocoons (MT) —I———— SOURCE: FAO, 2007. ‘Includes yaks 2Inciucles both llamas and alpacas “Primarily guinea pigs TA B L E 1 - 2 Contributions of Animals to Human Societies Food Eggs Blood Meat Fat Milk Edible slaughter by—products Body Coverings Wool Leather, pelts, hides Hair. fur, feathers Work Fieldwork and other labor Transportation Body Wastes Fuel Construction material Fertilizer Animal feed W—__— lncome Slaughter by-products Storage of capital Recreation and sport Storage of food Pest and weed control Contributions to the economy Companionship and service Buffer for fluctuating grain supplies Human health research Soil fertility enhancement Conservation Prestige Religion and other cultural needs SOURCE: McDowell, 1991, and Turman, 1986. Miik, butter, Eggs Fish, seafood, and ghee, and cream 1,20% aquatic animals Meat and 5.44% 1.08% animau fat All animal products ,, 17.08% Honey 9.29°/ Aquatic plants 0.06% 0.05% Alcohol, spices, and stimulants 2.76% Cereals Vegetables and fruits 46.36% 5 . 52% Sugar, sugar crops, All plant and sweeteners products 814% Starchy roots 82'9‘2% and pulses 7,22% Treenuts, oilcrops, and vegetable oils 12.28% FIGURE 1—2 Contributions of food sources to human energy (calorie) consumption. (SOURCE: FAO, 2007.) 'fer'iiltltrfiduction to the Animal Sciences Meat and animal fat 19.16% All animal products 38.51% Fish, sealood, and aquatic animals 6.02% Eggs 349% Cereals Milk, butter, ghee, 41.76% and cream 9.84% All plant Aquatic plants products 0.15% 51.49% Treenuts, oilcrops, Alcohol, 3 ices, and - _ P Vegetabbs Siarchy mots and vegetable orls stimulants . 413% 1 400/0 and "Luis and pulses ' 6.45% 7.69% FIGURE 1—3 Contributions of food sources to human protein consumption. (SOURCE: FAO, 2007.) diet in the developing countries is of plant origin. Animal products supply the remain— ing 17.1%. In developed countries, animals contribute a greater percentage of the total food energy. In the United States. for instance. they provide 24%. Animals are a more important source of protein than they are of calories (Figure 1—3), supplying 38.5% of the protein consumed in the world. Of the animal protein sources, meat provides ap- proximately 54%, milk provides approximately 32%, fish supplies approximately 6%. eggs supply 7%. Developed countries obtain a greater percentage of their total protein from animal products. The United States, for example, gets approximately 64% of its protein from animal products. Table 1—3 shows a more complete picture of the contri— bution of various foods to the US. food supply. Meat, eggs. and dairy products are im- portant food sources because they are nutrient dense. This means they have many nutrients compared to their calories, and the nutrients are digestible and readily avail- able. High-quality protein and biologically available levels of vitamins and minerals are supplied to the diet by animal foods as well as a significant amount of energy. Animal foods are generally preferred over plant foods by human populations. and the vast majority of the world’s population routinely chooses food produced by animals in its diet. A country’s living standards can be gauged by the proportion of its food sup- ply that consists of animal foods. Over and over, people have demonstrated that in— creasing animal—produced foods in their diet is one of the first things they will. do when their income increases. Not only are animal foods palatable and delicious, they are also the most nutritionally complete foods. They are an important source of vitamins and minerals. and the protein in animal foods is more likely than are plant proteins to in- clude the essential amino acids in the correct proportions. In some countries, the consumption of animal products is greater than in others. Nearly 30% of the calories in the average diet in the United States is from animal prod- ucts compared to 7% for the average African. There is also a tremendous difference in food distribution throughout the world. The population of a “poor” (developing) con- tinent like Africa eats only about 64% of the daily calories eaten by the “richer” (de— veloped) population of a country like the United States. Because this is an average, it Nutrient density A measurement of the nutrients provided in a food compared to the calories it contains. Diet The total of the foods and water being consumed by an individual or group. 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F NF ON m «N m m N F m i 365m. FumFE Eocwfiwgm 25 ESE mEEU >om $52 333095 .mEEdF mmmm Cetus :mE 265:2 “Em mhmmzm use an. h3:53.... .30... ._ux£ 5:30.". ram 485. coon Sin—5m :00“— .m.3 or: :_ nap—2.532 33:5 3 min—39.6 .30"— ne :o_u=n_..u:ou mum—3:09.3— n I — w ._ m (h 1U hamlet illIntroduction to the Animal Sciences means many people in the developing countries consume far less food per day and are severely undernourished, if not on the verge of starvation. Approximately 865 million people are undernourished. Most people include meat and dairy products in their diet whenever they can. Exceptions are almost always because of religious prohibitions (cattle in India, for ex— ample) or because of prohibitive costs. The world’s meat (excluding fish) is predomi- nantly supplied by pigs, cattle, and poultry with lesser amounts from sheep, goats, buffalos, and horses. Several other species provide a significant amount of meat to the people of various geographic regions. Most milk comes from cows, but buffalos, goats, and sheep provide significant amounts of milk, and most domestic mammals are milked somewhere in the world. OTHER Uses In addition to food, other animal products are also of great importance to humans, who have used wool, hair and other fibers. feathers, and hides for millennia for clothing and other uses (Figure 1—4). Manure from animals is a valuable lay—product. Estimates place its value in the United States alone as high as $10 billion for fertilizer (Figure 1—5). Slaughter byproducts are the source of a large number of industrial and consumer products. Some examples include insecticides, crayons, cosmetics, plastics, cello- phane, glass, water filters, plywood adhesive, soap, and animal feed (Figure 176). In developing countries, 80% of the energy needs are provided by the muscles of humans and animals. Draft animals are vitally important to many Asian, African, and South American countries. Oxen plow fields, water buffalos work in rice paddies, yaks and camels still trudge over ancient trade routes, and dogs still pull sleds (Figure 1—7). Animals are used as models for humans in biomedical research. Thirty years have been added to the average American life span since 1900. In addition, the quality of life for people afflicted with chronic diseases has been helped immeasurably. Medical reSearch depends on the use of animals as models. It will continue to do so in the fore- seeable future (Figure l—8). In addition, animals are used in research to benefit ani- mal health, resulting in healthier, longer-lived pets and healthier, more productive livestock. Draft animal An animal whose major purpose is to perform work that involves hauling or pulling. An ox or horse pulling a plow or wagon is a draft animal. 3“ FIGURE 1—4 Hides are a slaughter by—product '” that humans have used since long before domes- tication. (Photo courtesy of Adele M. Kupchik.) FIGURE 1-5 The fertilizer value of livestock wastes produced in the United States may be as high as $10 billion. (Photographer R. L. Kane. Courtesy of US. Department of Agriculture.) FIGURE 1-6 Slaughter byuproducts are used in the manufacture of a variety of industrial and consumer produce. (Photo courtesy of Adele M. Kupchik.) Companionship is provided to humans by several million, perhaps even billions, of animals around the world. Specially trained animals, including dogs and monkeys, assist people with visual and hearing disabilities and paralysis, helping them to live more independently (Figure 1—9). In addition, many entertainment industries such as racing, rodeos, and bullfighting are based on animal use (Figure 1—10). Agricultural animals convert inedible feeds to valuable products. About two thirds of the feed used in the US. livestock industry is not suitable for human consumption. Hay, pasture, coarse forages, by-products, garbage, and damaged food are examples. Animal use diversifies the food supply and the economy. Diversified agriculture is more stable and more sustainable. 'Il'IiEitroducEt-i'on‘ to theAni'm'al Sciences FIGURE 1—7 Draft animals are still the most important nonhuman power source in the devel— FIGURE 1-8 Biomedical research depends on the use of animals as research models. (Photo courtesy of Stock Boston.) THE FUTURE OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION The first two decades of the 2 lst century appear to be a boom time for global livestock production with huge increases in livestock production occurring and further increases predicted. This increasing animal production is being referred to as the livestock revo- lution, likening it to the cereal grains boom of the green revolution, which began in the 19603 and is credited with saving millions of lives while building national economies. Global demand for meat, milk, and eggs is increasing very rapidly. The forces drivw ing this increase in demand are simple: people and money. Unprecedented economic development around the world is increasing family income. This trend contributes to increased per capita consumption of animal products, which, along with rapid popula— tion growth, results in large increases in total demand. Most of the new demand for oping countries. (Photo courtesy of the Philippine American Chamber of Commerce, Inc.) Green revolution Dramatic improvements in grain production in developing countries during the 1960s to the 19805 because of technological innovation and application. 0 Part one-trag- 2131a FIGURE 1—9 Service clogs, such as these seeing-eye clogs shown with a trainer and a man with a vision disability, help people with disabil- ities. (Photographer C. PrescottrAllen.) FIGURE 1-10 Many entertainment industries are based on animal use. Jockey Gary Stevens is shown here, iust after he won the 1995 Kentucky Derby atop Thunder Gulch. (Photographer Andy Lyons. Courtesy of Getty Images, inc.) meat, milk, and eggs is in developing countries. By 2020. developing countries may produce the majority of both the world‘s meat and milk. Along with the increased de- mand for animal products is an increased demand for other agricultural commodities. Biofuel In addition, the world’s developing demand for biofuel production will increasingly Gas or liquid fuel made from play a role in food availability and prices. b'°'°9'ca" matena's sum as The challenges associated with these profound changes in agriculture are signifi- cmps and animal wage cant. Much will depend on research and technology development. Crop yield breaki throughs will be a key issue because we will not be cultivating more area. The prime agricultural lands are already in use. and, worldwide, the amount of acreage available x ._ [Introduction to the Aramai- Science's for agriculture is decreasing yearly. Agriculture of all kinds has the potential to affect the environment. For the sake of future generations we must achieve these massive in— creases in yield at the same time protecting air, soil, and water quality. Combined, the opportunities and the challenges suggest an unprecedented dynamic period in the world agricultural order. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Animal science has its roots in the challenges that the first domesticators of animals en— countered many millennia ago when they permanently brought in animals from the wild. Today, animal science is a vital field with specialties in genetics and animal breeding nutrition, physiology, animal health, animal behavior, meat and dairy prod- uct science, and biotechnology. Animals are used for a myriad of purposes, including food, fiber, work, research, companionship, and entertainment. Although agricultural animals have come under attack in recent years by those who feel they are a luxury, agricultural animals are not destined to disappear or even be reduced in numbers and importance. What is happening is that they are becoming even more important in help— ing to alleviate human hunger. For this reason, we should learn something about the factors that determine the kinds of agricultural animals found throughout the world. Chapter 2 explores in depth the contributions animals make to humankind. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Define animal science. When did animal science begin? 2. Explain why all of the world’s occupations are tied to agriculture. 3. When did animal domestication occur? When were each of the major species domesticated? Was domestication a conscious decision by humans? 4. Define the specialties of animal science. 5. Why is specialization of animal science disciplines both a help and a hindrance? 6 . Study Table 1—], which gives livestock numbers in the world. Notice the relative numbers of each species. Offer some reasons why animals are distributed as they are. Based on the numbers in this table, what are the world’s major farm species? 7. Table 1—2 gives an overview of the goods and services provided by domestic animals to humans. (These are explored in detail later in the text.) Develop a list of uses from this table that are ranked from “most useful" to "least useful” frOm your current perspective. (At the end of the book, come back to your list and see if your perspective has changed.) 8. What proportion of human food energy and protein come from animal products? 9. What proportion of the US. calorie and protein supply comes from animal products? How do other countries compare? 10. If a person doesn’t eat meat, what are generally the reasons? 11. Most of the world’s meat supply is provided by seven species. Name them. [2. Meat is important as a food for the human population because it is nutrient dense. What does “nutrient density” mean? a Part OnelThefl‘Plae 13. List some of the important products made from lay-products of the slaughter industry. 14. What proportion of the nonmachinery power for the world is provided by humans and work animals? Name six important draft animals. 15. What is the role of animals to medical research? 16. Briefly discuss some of the ways that animals provide companionship, recreation, and entertainment to humans. 17. What types of humanly unusable feeds do animals convert to valued products? 18. Why is a diversified agriculture so important, and what role do animals have in diversification? 19. What is the livestock revolution, and what are some of its challenges? REFERENCES Bourden, R. M. 2000. Understanding animal breeding. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. I980. Foodfrom animals: Quantity, quality and safety. Report No. 82. Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. 1997. Contribution ofanimal products to healthful diets. Report No. 131. 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