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Feeding%20%26%20Nutrition%202010

Feeding%20%26%20Nutrition%202010 - ANSC102 AnimalNutrition...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style ANSC 102 Animal Nutrition
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Animal Nutrition (terms) Nutrient = is a food constituent that aids  in the support of life. Nonruminant        (monogastric) An animal without a functional rumen, which is sometimes called a monogastric, swine poultry and young calves. An animal with a functional rumen.
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Nutrition Nutrient is a food constituent that aids in the support of life There are six classes of nutrients: - Carbohydrates - Fats - Proteins - Minerals - Vitamins - Water
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Use of Nutrients
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Nutrition All animals need to receive a  balanced ration Maintenance ration usually during a non- productive portion of life. Reproductive/Lactation/ growth - exceeds normal  maintenance requirements and formulated to  meet the needs of the growing fetus or milk or  egg production needs.
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Growth of Fetus
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Nutrition Carbohydrates a) Main source of energy in most livestock & poultry rations (~ 60-70 %) b) organic (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, CHO) Energy supplied by carbohydrates can be used for: a) Maintenance b) Growth c) Reproduction d) Production (milk and eggs) e) Work f) Building blocks for the use of other nutrients
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Nutrition (Different Classes) 1. Monosaccharide (Glucose) 2. Disaccharide (Sucrose [table sugar], lactose, maltose) 3. Polysaccharide - starch - cellulose (good for ruminants) - hemicellulose (pentoses (5C) and hexoses (6C) - glycogen (storage form of glucose in the liver) Lignin (indigestible by both ruminants and nonruminants)
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Glucose  (Structure) http://www2.nl.edu/jste/carbohyd.htm Alpha linkages are common in both starch and  glycogen (sugar molecules found in the body)  and are highly available. Beta linkages are very common in cellulose  products and the sugar is only available to those  organisms which are specially adapted to  breaking it down (cow and termite).  
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Starch Maltose unit Amylose and 
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Hemicellulose (arabino-xylan) Xylose   backbone Arabinose side  chains
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Cytoplasm High Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Less Lignin Cell walls are thicker in stems than in leaves  (Dicots vs Monocots) Cell walls increase in thickness  as plants age
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Carbohydrate Deficiency Ketosis is common in high producing Dairy  cattle.   Diabetes mellitus
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Nutrition (Fats) 1. Fats are the most potent source of energy in the  diet (2.25 x  as much energy on a weight basis,  when compared to other ingredients). 2. Fats and oils are usually synonymous, when  referring to diets.  3. Insoluble in water Why do fats contain 2.25 times as much energy, when compared to other substances?
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Nutrition Saturated 16:0 palmitic C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C- C-C-COOH H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C=C-C- C-C-C-COOH H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H 18:2 linoleic Unsaturated
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Nutrition -C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C=C- C-C-C-C-C H H H H H H H H H H H H H
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