SCAN0022 - In Figure 1 the n-pentane has a molecular...

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Unformatted text preview: //-\\ In Figure 1, the n-pentane has a molecular formula (35le and the 11 (normal) implies 5— carbons all in a row with no branching. There are other compounds though, that have the molecular formula C5H12. Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different connectivity (or structures) are called constitutional isomers (or structural isomers). In Figure 3 there are two other structures that have C5H12 as the molecular formula. The first has a common name of isopentane and the next a common name of neopentane; using the I.U.P.A.C. rules they are referred to as 2-methylbutane and 2,2- dimethylpropane respectively. Take the time to convince yourself that the structures drawn, using the three techniques, are indeed the same compounds for both isopentane and neopentane in figure 3. iso-pentane or CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH3 A/ 2—methylbutane CH3CHCH3CH2CH3 l H H—C—H H neopentane | l I CH3C (C H3)2CH3 or H—C —-——C —C —H . I l I C H3C (C H3 )3 2,2-d1methylpropane H H _c —H H | H NAME EXPANDED CONDENSED BOND-LINE Figure 3 The common names that are most often used have the prefixes iso, sec, and tert. The iso group has a carbon that is attached one carbon from the end of a chain. When using the iso abbreviation the total number of carbons is the parent, thus isobutane has 4 carbons, but the I.U.P.A.C. name is 2-methylpropane because the longest chain has 3 carbons. The sec (secondary) name implies that the attachment is on the second carbon. A secondary carbon has two other carbons attached to it and is denoted with a two and a ...
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