Unformatted text preview: This mixing process increases entropy which is a State Function, another
thermodynamic variable like H. The larger the entropy, more disorder exists. A solution has higher entropy than the pure solute and pure
solvent. 13.4 Solution process CuClz (s) ——> CuClz (aq) (one is a solid, the other is an aqueous
solution) CuClz (aq) = Cu2+ (aq) + 2Cl' (aq) (this is what the aq means) If enough Cqu (s) is added, some will remain as the solid because the
maximum solubility of the solid in water has been reached. The solution is saturated.
44.. CuClz (5)6} CuClz (aq) both ex1st, both reactions occur, no net change. Solubility is the concentration of solute in equilibrium with some
undissolved solute in a saturated solution. Compare with saturated, supersaturated and unsaturated. Similarly with liquids, the miscibility of a liquid in another liquid is an
indication of the amount of allowed mixing. If two layers exist, the
solutions are immiscible. Thermodynamics: The amount of energy evolved in hydrating an ion will depend on
— the distance between the ion and the dipole
- the charge on the ion
- the polarity of the solvating molecule Thus, the enthalpy of ion hydration can be predicted based on the ion
radius and charge. ...
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- Fall '08