P07_ballistics3

P07_ballistics3 - Ballistic Pendulum Name: Teammates:...

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Ballistic Pendulum Name: Teammates: Introduction The last two weeks have shown us the importance of conservation laws. These laws provide extra “tools” that allow us to analyze certain aspects of physical systems and be able to predict the motion of objects in the systems without using more complicated analysis. Even in situations wherein we cannot exactly solve the motion, these laws are quite useful. When we did run the last two experiments, we found that the data did not support a 100% conservation of energy. We attributed the discrepancy to experimental errors and to losses to friction and air resistance. Actually, that there is another law at work that limits these conservation laws: the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law of Thermodynamics While the total amount of energy does not change, the second law of thermodynamics puts limits on the amount of usable energy that can be transferred. One of the consequences of this law is that the total amount of usable energy that comes out of any process will be less than the total amount of energy that went into the process. The difference between the total amount of energy input and the usable energy output is expended as waste heat. Take, for example, a ball that is dropped from some height above the ground. As it falls, air acts upon the ball to slow it down. In doing so, some of the initial potential energy of the ball is converted to greater kinetic energy of the molecules of air, which makes them slightly warmer.
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P07_ballistics3 - Ballistic Pendulum Name: Teammates:...

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