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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Introduction to Criminalistics
The Analysis of Controlled Substances Top 10 Top 10 TOBACCO : biggest killer (400,000 deaths/year) ALCOHOL : most widely abused legal substance PRESCRIPTION DRUGS : dangerously addictive, METHAMPHETAMINE : labeled an epidemic pro Top 10 (cont’d) Top 10 (cont’d) MARIJUANA : most widely abused illegal substan MDMA (ECSTASY) : little research on long term CRACK COCAINE : cheap, destructive drug maki H HEROIN : highly addictive drug making a comeba Top 10 (cont’d) Top 10 (cont’d) STEROIDS : horrible side effects, the toll they're taking on athletics INHALANTS : abuse is on the rise among youth a Drugs of Abuse Drugs of Abuse Marijuana Narcotics – heroin, morphine, codeine, cocaine (per TX statutes) CNS stimulants – amphetamine, methamphetamine Hallucinogens – LSD, Peyote, PCP, MDMA (Ecstacy), ketamine Hypnotics – Meprobamate, Rohypnol, GHB Tranquilizers / Antidepressants – Benzodiazepines: valium, xanax; Barbiturates: seconal, nembutal Drug Sources Drug Sources Synthetic – designer drugs such as ecstasy (MDMA) Semisynthetic – Altered alkaloids such as heroin Alkaloids – drugs derived from plants such as cocaine Botanical Exams Botanical Exams Marijuana Peyote Opium Marijuana Marijuana Leaves Seeds Stems/stalks Dry vs. wet Delta9THC DuquenoisLevine test TLC GC/MS DNA Just an average House. In the Tennessee country side, Right? Other Forms Other Forms Hashish Hash oil Thai sticks Sensemilla Acapulco gold Peyote Peyote Cactus button Mescaline – active component Botanical ID only Psilocin/Psilocybin Psilocin/Psilocybin Color tests TLC UV GC/MSpsilocybin converts to psilocin on column LSD LSD Microgram quantities are physiologically active Decomposes with heat – limits choices of instrumental analysis to FTIR Fluoresces under UV light Opiates Opiates Derivatives of opium Includes codeine, morphine, methadone Heroin – 7 times as physiologically active as morphine, it is a semisynthetic Cocaine Cocaine Derived from the coca plant (alkaloid) Cocaine vs. crack Amphetamines Amphetamines Amphetamine vs. methamphetamine Crystal meth, ice Ecstacy – Rave I Ecstacy – Rave I MDMA Raves II Raves II GHB Rohypnol Ketamine (PCP analog) PCP PCP Angel dust Large animal tranquilizer Barbiturates Barbiturates CNS depressant (tranquilizer) Various derivatives of barbituric acid Steroids Steroids Build muscle mass Provides opportunity for pro athletes to get allexpense paid trips to Club Fed Other abused substances Other abused substances “Cheese” (“Monkey Juice”) – weak heroin + Tylenol PM (diphenhydramine) “Khat” (“Kat”) – alkaloid CNS; used for centuries; Catha edulis Chemical Testing Chemical Testing Spot tests Microcrystal tests Purification for IR analysis (not req. for GC/MS): Dry extraction Liquidliquid extraction Instrumental Analysis Instrumental Analysis UV FTIR GC GC/MS Qualitative vs. quantitative Clandestine Meth Labs Clandestine Meth Labs Safety concerns Lab in progress The Nazi Method (Birch reduction): pseudoephedrine tablets, lithium batteries, starting fluid, anhydrous ammonia, red devil lye, rock salt, and liquid drain cleaner Iodine/red phosphorous/pseudoephedrine: requires 424 hours ...
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- Spring '11