Chapt 8 - sakai - Chapter 8 Cognition and Language

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Chapter 8 Cognition and Language
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Cognition  =  _________________ , gaining knowledge Language  = is a system of arbitrary ___________________, combined to create  meaningful statements. Cognitive psychologists   study  ________ people think and acquire knowledge Attention  =  is the tendency to respond selectively to stimuli Finding an  _________________  feature or figure relies on a  preattentive process Finding a  _________________  feature or figure requires an  attentive process Shifting attention  =  When we intentionally  ____________  our  attention to a particular stimulus, it is difficult to attend to other  things
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Figure 8.4 Figure 8.4 Each gauge represents a measurement of a different variable in a machine. For the top row, the operator must check gauges one at a time. In the bottom row all the safe ranges are now in the safe ranges. See the green colors, all on the right side of the dials, where it should be. The operator detects an unsafe reading preattentively .
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PLAY VIDEO Change blindness Remember we spoke of the concept of the sensory memory People believe they remember everything in a scene they have recently scanned But they frequently fail to detect changes in parts of a scene upon viewing it again This common failure is referred to as change blindness
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADD = characterized by easy distraction, impulsiveness, moodiness and inability to  follow through on plans.  Categorization The  ____________________  of categories or concepts is one of the primary ways  that we organize information about our world. There are a number of ways to categorize:  Prototypes A prototype is a ___________________ or typical example of a category. We decide whether or not an object belongs in a category by determining how  well it resembles the prototypical members of the category
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We  form  some concepts with definitions. For example, a triangle has three  sides. Mostly, we form concepts with  ______________  images or typical  examples ( prototypes ). For example, a robin is a  prototype  of a bird, but a  penguin is not. Triangle (definition)
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Chapt 8 - sakai - Chapter 8 Cognition and Language

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