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RU - Chapt 14 for students - Chapter 14 Personality...

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Chapter 14 Personality
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Personality Personality derives from the Latin word persona , which translates into English as “ _________ .” In psychology, personality is defined as the consistent ways in which one person’s behavior _________ from that of others, especially in social contexts. Some psychologists have developed “grand ________ of personality. Others have tried to identify personality types and describe why an individual classified as a certain “personality type” ___________ in certain ways.
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Personality Freud and the ___________ approach Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, developed the first psychodynamic theory of personality. Psychodynamic _________ relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual. The individual may not be aware of these forces that influence thought and behavior.
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Psychoanalytic Perspective In his clinical practice, Freud  encountered patients suffering  from  __________  disorders. Their  complaints could not be explained  in terms of purely  _________   causes. Freud’s clinical experience led him  to develop the first comprehensive  theory of  ____________ , which  included the  unconscious mind psychosexual stages,   and  defense  mechanisms. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Culver Pictures
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Figure 14.2 FIGURE 14.2 Freud believed that psychoanalysis could bring parts of the unconscious into the conscious mind, where the client could deal with them.
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Exploring the Unconscious A reservoir ( __________  mind ) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings,  and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds ( ________   association ) in order to tap the unconscious.  The process of free association (chain of thoughts) leads to  _________ embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories are retrieved and  released ( treatment: psychoanalysis ) the patient feels better.
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Freud’s search for the unconscious & catharsis: He was influenced by the psychiatrist Josef Breuer, who encouraged patients to recall and discuss the details of __________ early life experiences in order to relieve the physical complaints. Breuer and Freud referred to this _________ as catharsis . This means the emotional release an experience or feeling of spiritual release and purification brought about by an intense emotional experience Freud later expanded this “ ________ cure” into a method of explaining the workings of personality The unconscious mind __________ memories, emotions and thoughts, some of which are irrational or socially unacceptable. These thoughts and feelings influence our behavior although we may not be aware of them. Psychoanalysis brings these to ____________ to achieve catharsis and help the patient overcome dysfunctional impulses.
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Freud developed the concept of the Oedipus complex .
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