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CCJS105 FINAL REVIEW CONTROL THEORY: Why does man commit crime? B/c he is prone to it Albert Reiss & Jackson Toby: Reiss (1951): Delinquency= failure of controls -Personal control- avoid conflict, delay gratification -Social control- surrounding institutions/community exerts control Toby: Stakes & Conformity: anyone can be criminal, dependant on one’s stakes in conformity Walter Reckless (1961): Containment Theory -people have a balance- push and pulls to commit crime Pushes: - bad family structure -inherently aggressive Pull: - peers -money -Containments: stop one from getting pushed or pulled -internal- religion, morals, conscience -external- parents, reputation SOCIAL BOND THEORY (Travis Hirschi): -4 bonds: -attachment- attached to family -involvement- conventional activities (clubs & groups), school -commitment- conventional lines of action -belief- belief in common values -If one doesn’t have these bonds, they commit crime -Criticism of theory: not all delinquents are devoid of these bonds Samson & Laub: -Delinquents as children, questioned as adults- why? -“Turning Points”- decline in crime (ex. Careers, family, military) GENERAL THEORY OF CRIME (Gottfredson & Hirschi): Low Self-Control -Crime is opportunistic and impulsive -1 st degree murder- lengthy premeditation -Claims to be the only crime theory -People who are risk takers, show low self-restraint & physical- engage in many impulsive behaviors -Parenting & direct control- self-control determiner -Normal levels of self-control 1. Supervision 2. recognize deviant behavior
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3.Punish deviant behavior -Can tell Self-control level at age 7/8, stay the same for rest of life -G & H did not believe in longitudinal behavior, s-c only factor (not gender, etc) -Specialized offenders- don’t exist, offenders are versatile, don’t consciously pick one area of crime Policy: -early childhood education -2 parent families/parenting classes -prevent teenage pregnancy NEO-CLASSICAL THEORIES: -free-will -always a thought process= when & how Cornish & Clarke: Rational Choice -Offenders are rational ppl who use cost/benefit analysis -2 stages of choice: 1. Criminal Decision- willing to commit crime? Any crime or certain types? (Abstract) 2. Criminal event decision- particular time/place, willing to commit particular crime? (Specific) -Choice structuring properties - how big is cost/benefit? -what are the odds of getting caught? -(ex. Area well lit, guarded?) -If it weighs in your favor, you commit, if it doesn’t you don’t -Bounded rationality- had incorrect/incomplete info ENVIRONMENTAL: -Offenders take in situational context and exact situations -Geographic profiling- Kim Rosmo- quantifiable info used to determine where criminal lives and where another crime is likely to occur
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